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Welcome to our website!

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Our online family tree is published on this site! 
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The incident was the first birth of GAN SENG JIOK (October 3, 1904). Recent activities are the birth of GAN JING LIANG (August 13, 2009). The most recent event is the death of GAN JING LIANG (NOV 27, 2011). The latest updated was on 18th July
 2013, now has 29 registered members.

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Other:The origin and customs of the Ching Ming Festival
Posted by: 維雄 颜 on Mar 24 2010 03:17

2010 Ching Ming Festival on 5th of April (Monday) .

Ching Ming Festival, in ancient times known as "Arbor Day", "riding the Spring Festival", "smart festival." China's folk festivals.

(* Note:
1) As the festival is based on moral courage and determined, so clear and bright a few broadly in line with the Western calendar, the Chinese traditional festivals.

2) In ancient times, Ching Ming is not as important to the day before the Cold Food Festival. Cold Food Festival as a ban on the main section of vulgar fire, and not allowed to light a fire for cooking, can only be prepared to eat well cooked food, cold, hence the name. As close to the date the Song Dynasty, the Cold Food Observance gradually moved to the Ching Ming grave among the vulgar. Qingming Festival by a simple increase in agricultural solar terms as an important major events and festivals, but there are a number of Cold Food's Sisu distorted in a way to pass down and preserve in the festival.
)

Qingming is also one of China's 24 solar terms. As the 24 solar terms more objectively reflect the year-round temperature, rainfall, such as changes in phenology, so use it to arrange the working people of ancient agricultural activities. "Huainanzi? Astronomical training" goes: "After the vernal equinox on the 15th, the Big Dipper that B, then the wind to the Ching Ming Festival." Click "when the 100-year-old asked," saying: "All things grow this time, are clean and bright and clean. So that the Ching Ming Festival. "clear and bright one that temperatures, rainfall increased, it is an excellent spring spring planting season. Therefore, "clear and bright before and after the point of melon kinds of beans", "afforestation, source is clear and bright" and Nongyan. This shows that the solar term and agricultural production has a close relationship.

However, as the Tomb Sweeping festival, with the pure solar terms is radically different. Solar Terms in China phenology changes in seasonal sequence of signs, while the festival will include a certain amount of customs activities and a commemorative significance.

Ching Ming Festival is a traditional Chinese festivals, the most important festival of the sacrifice, is ancestor worship and grave day. Shangfen known grave, and the festival of the deceased an activity. Most of the Han people and some ethnic minorities are in the Ching Ming grave.

In accordance with the old customs, grave, people want to bring Food & Wine fruit, paper money and other items to the cemetery will be food for the festival in the family tomb, and then burning paper money for a new grave Pei soil, verdant fold Jizhi new branches inserted in Grave then kowtow salute worship, finally eaten Food & Wine to go home. Tang Dynasty poet Du Mu's poem "Qingming": "Tomb Sweeping Festival is rain in a panic, pedestrians Deep Sorrow. By asking restaurants where there? Cowboy Yao Zhi Heng Fa Chuen." Wrote the Ching Ming Festival, a special atmosphere.

Ching Ming Festival, also known as section hikers, according to the solar calendar, it is the annual April 4 to 6 between, it was greeted with beautiful vegetation Tulv the season, that people have spring tour (ancient called Outing) a good the time, so the ancients a clearer hikers, and carry out a series of sports practices.

Even today, the Ching Ming Festival worship their ancestors and loved ones mourn the late custom still prevalent.

Ming and Qing Dynasties, there have been "eating Ching Ming Group", "send one hundred worms", "water Divertimento" and other customs. Ching Ming and "smart" homophonic, it is also called "smart Festival", Jiangnan people to have this day have children the best argument. Today, Qingming has worship of ancestors, grave, Jisao martyrs tomb, tree planting, hikers and eating customs and other green dumpling.



Origin and Legend of Ching Ming Festival
About China's traditional Qingming Festival began in the Zhou dynasty, has 2500 years of history. Qingming is a very important the beginning of the solar terms, clear and bright one to the higher temperatures, it is an excellent spring spring planting season, and therefore, "clear and bright around the melon kinds of beans." "Afforestation, source is clear and bright" in Nong Yan. Later, the day of Ching Ming and the Cold Food close to the fire ban Cold Food grave civil day, gradually, and Cold Food and Qingming on the combined, while the Cold Food will serve both as a lucid another name, has become for the Ching Ming Festival, a custom, Tomb Sweeping Day fireworks not move, eat cold food.

On the Cold Food Observance, there is such a legend:
According to legend, Spring and Autumn Period, Duke Xian of Jin's concubine Li Ji In order to make his own son Xi Qi to the throne on the murder of Prince's deadly trap set Nobuo, Nobuo forced to commit suicide. Nobuo's brother Chong Er, to escape the scourge of exile away. In exile, Chong Er suffered the humiliation. Had with him a Chuben the courtiers, most of them one after another went to the Ben Chu Road. There are only a few dedicated people, has been chasing with him. One of them is called Jiezi Tui. On one occasion, Chong Er hungry fainted. Chong Er Jie Zitui to save, from his legs cut off a piece of meat, grilled in the use of fire to give Chong Er to eat. Nineteen years later, made a return to monarchy Chong Er, that is, one of the famous Five Hegemons Duke Wen of Jin.

Duke Wen of Jin came to power, those who through thick and thin and his courtiers big plus Feng Shang, with the exception forgot Jiezi Tui. Someone in front of Duke Wen of Jin Jie Zitui been done an injustice. Duke Wen of Jin suddenly recalled the old things we keep our hearts, immediately send to please Jie Zitui towards a reward by the official seal. However, the messenger went to a few times, Jie Zitui not come. Duke Wen of Jin had no choice but to go pro please. However, when Duke Wen of Jin Jie Zaitui came home, saw the door closed. Jie Zitui would want to see him, and had been carrying a mother and fled into the Mianshan (today's Shanxi Jiexiu County, southeast). Duke Wen of Jin will let him on the RC-Mianshan search not be found. As a result, some people had an idea that I would set fire to mountain fire on three sides, leaving the party, the fire from time to time Jiezi Tui will come out of their own. Duke Wen of Jin are ordered to give forest fires, have guessed that big fire for three days and three nights, the fire extinguished, after all not see Jie Zaitui out. The mountains look, Jie Zitui mother and son holding a big willow trees charred dead. Duke Wen of Jin looked at the bodies of Ku Bai Jie Zaitui a while, and then buried the body and found that the backbone of Du Zhao Jie Zaitui a willow tree holes, the hole seems to have something. Took out a look at the original film skirts are above the title a blood poem:

Bong-Jun flesh to make loyalty, hopefully lord often clear and bright.
Liu testimony was eventually not seen a ghost, be superior to Ban Jun Jian Chen.
If the lord with my heart, I recalled the often self-reflection.
Chen in Jiuquan a clear conscience, diligent Ching Ming Fu Ching Ming.

Duke Wen of Jin possession of the blood and into the sleeve. Then Jiezi Tui and his mother were buried in a large charred under a willow tree. To commemorate Jie Zaitui, Duke Wen of Jin ordered Mianshan changed to "Jie-shan," to establish ancestral temple in the mountains, and to set fire to this day as the Mountain Cold Food Festival, Xiaoyu country, every year on this day taboo fireworks, eat Cold Food.

Travel time, he had a charred willow cutting, to the palace did a double wooden sandals and looked at it every day exclaimed: "How sad indeed a single step." "First step" is the ancient lower right of mutual respect between their superiors or peers of the call, is said to come from this.

The following year, Duke Wen of Jin led the courtiers, wearing clothes of mourning hiking and pay homage to, express their condolences. Line to the grave, we saw the old willow tree resurrection of dead trees, Greenwood 1000, the wind Piaowu. Duke Wen of Jin looking at the resurrection of the old willow, as the same as seen Jiezi Tui. He walked respect to front, cherish to pinch a bit branches, compiled a circle worn on the head. Jisao later, Duke Wen of Jin to revive the old willow Ciming as "Ching Ming Liu," again on this day as the Ching Ming Festival.

Later, Duke Wen of Jin Chang put sleeves in blood at the side, as a spur its own ruling motto. He was diligent, clear and bright, good governance, the state of governance very well.

Since then, Jin's people to live and work, for meritorious non-living, non-figure wealth and Jie Zitui greatly missed. Every day of his death, we come to honor the memory of prohibited fireworks. Also used flour and the Zaoni, shape into the appearance of swallows, with willows of string together, inserted in the door, calling his soul, this thing called "the push-yan" (Jie Jie Zitui also been made to push it). Since then, Cold Food, Qingming has become a grand festival for people nationwide. Every Cold Food, people that do not light a fire for cooking, eating cold foods. In the north, the people eat well in advance of the cold, such as jujube cake, wheat cake, etc.; in the south, is more for the Youth League and glutinous rice sugar lotus root. Each Qingming, people wearing wicker compiled circle on his head, put willow branches inserted in around their houses to show miss.


Ching Ming Festival customs
Ching Ming Festival, the custom is to enrich interesting, in addition to pay attention to ban fire, grave, as well as hikers, swinging, Cuju, playing polo, Liu inserted a series of custom sports. According to legend, this is because the Ching Ming Festival to Cold Food Observance ban fire, in order to prevent the Cold Food Observance buffet beverages, so we come to participate in some sports, in order to exercise. Therefore, this festival in both Jisaoxinfen Health Do not die from the acid tears of sorrow, another outing laughter of play, is a distinctive holiday.

Swing
This was the ancient custom of the Ching Ming Festival. Swing, which means grabbing Leather Strap and migration. Its history is very ancient, the earliest known future generations, the latter in order to avoid the taboo, replaced by swing. The ancient swing multi-purpose tree Lindera sticks to frame, then bolt on the ribbons made of. Later, the progressive development of the pedal for the use of two Shengsuo Jia swing. Swing can not only play better health, but also can develop courage, so far as the people, especially loved by children.

Cuju
Ju is a ball, the ball is made of leather with the leather ball plugged in with the hair. Cuju, is to use enough to play. This is the ancient Ching Ming Festival, when people love a game. Legend has it that the Yellow Emperor invented, the original purpose was to train warriors.

Outing
Also known as spring tour. In ancient times called the Tan-chun, look for spring and so on. On Tomb Sweeping Day, spring, nature, scene of thriving vitality everywhere, it is an excellent picnic time. China's civil society long maintained the clear hikers habits.

Planting
Before Tomb Sweeping Festival, Chun-yang Zhao Lin, Chun-yang Zhao Lin, Chun Fei Sa, planting seedlings with high survival rate, grow fast. Therefore, since ancient times, our country there is clear and bright tree-planting habits. It was Ching Ming Festival, also known as "Arbor Day." Custom has been circulating since planting. In 1979, the Standing Committee that each year's Arbor Day March 12 for China. This is to mobilize people of all nationalities active in greening the motherland of great significance.

Kite
Ching Ming Festival is also one of the favorite activities. Every Tomb Sweeping Festival, people not only put during the day, night is also put. Night in the kite or the wind under a steady pull strings of colored lines hung a small lantern, like a flashing star, known as the "Magic Lamp." In the past, some people have put the blue sky kite after they cut the go-between, brushing breeze sent them away, they said that this will Chubing misfortunes, to bring good luck for himself.

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Other:清明节由来与习俗
Posted by: 維雄 颜 on Mar 24 2010 03:06

2010年清明节落于4月5日 (星期一)。

清明节,古时亦称“植树节”、“踏春节”、“聪明节”。我国民间传统节日。

( *注:

1) 由於清明節是根據節氣而定的,故清明是少數與西历大致吻合的华人傳統節日。

2)在古代,清明還不如前一日的寒食节重要。寒食節主要節俗為禁火、不許生火煮食,只能吃備好的熟食、冷食,故名。 由於日期接近,宋代之後,寒食掃墓之俗漸移到清明之中。清明節由一個單純的農業節氣提升為重要的大節日,但寒食的食俗卻有若干以變形的方式傳承下來了,並保存於清明節中。)

清明也是我国的二十四节气之一。由于二十四节气比较客观地反映了一年四季气温、降雨、物候等方面的变化,所以古代劳动人民用它安排农事活动。《淮南子?天文训》云:“春分后十五日,斗指乙,则清明风至。”按《岁时百问》的说法:“万物生长此时,皆清洁而明净。故谓之清明。”清明一到,气温升高,雨量增多,正是春耕春种的大好时节。故有“清明前后,点瓜种豆”、“植树造林,莫过清明”的农谚。可见这个节气与农业生产有着密切的关系。

  但是,清明作为节日,与纯粹的节气又有所不同。节气是我国物候变化、时令顺序的标志,而节日则包含着一定的风俗活动和某种纪念意义。

  清明节是我国传统节日,也是最重要的祭祀节日,是祭祖和扫墓的日子。扫墓俗称上坟,祭祀死者的一种活动。汉族和一些少数民族大多都是在清明节扫墓。

  按照旧的习俗,扫墓时,人们要携带酒食果品、纸钱等物品到墓地,将食物供祭在亲人墓前,再将纸钱焚化,为坟墓培上新土,折几枝嫩绿的新枝插在坟上,然后叩头行礼祭拜,最后吃掉酒食回家。唐代诗人杜牧的诗《清明》:清明时节雨纷纷,路上行人欲断魂。借问酒家何处有?牧童遥指杏花村。”写出了清明节的特殊气氛。

  清明节,又叫踏青节,按阳历来说,它是在每年的4月4日至6日之间,正是春光明媚草木吐绿的时节,也正是人们春游(古代叫踏青)的好时候,所以古人有清明踏青,并开展一系列体育活动的的习俗。

  直到今天,清明节祭拜祖先,悼念已逝的亲人的习俗仍很盛行。

明清以来,有“吃清明团”、“送百虫”、“水嬉”等风俗。由于清明和“聪明”谐音,故又称“聪明节”,江南民间有此日生子最佳的说法。现今,清明有祭祖、扫墓、祭扫烈士墓、植树、踏青以及吃青团子等风俗。

清明节的由来与传说


我国传统的清明节大约始于周代,已有二千五百多年的历史。清明最开始是一个很重要的节气,清明一到,气温升高,正是春耕春种的大好时节,故有“清明前后,种瓜种豆”。“植树造林,莫过清明”的农谚。后来,由于清明与寒食的日子接近,而寒食是民间禁火扫墓的日子,渐渐的,寒食与清明就合二为一了,而寒食既成为清明的别称,也变成为清明时节的一个习俗,清明之日不动烟火,只吃凉的食品。

  关于寒食,有这样一个传说:

  相传春秋战国时代,晋献公的妃子骊姬为了让自己的儿子奚齐继位,就设毒计谋害太子申生,申生被逼自杀。申生的弟弟重耳,为了躲避祸害,流亡出走。在流亡期间,重耳受尽了屈辱。原来跟着他一道出奔的臣子,大多陆陆续续地各奔出路去了。只剩下少数几个忠心耿耿的人,一直追随着他。其中一人叫介子推。有一次,重耳饿晕了过去。介子推为了救重耳,从自己腿上割下了一块肉,用火烤熟了就送给重耳吃。十九年后,重耳回国做了君主,就是著名春秋五霸之一晋文公。

  晋文公执政后,对那些和他同甘共苦的臣子大加封赏,唯独忘了介子推。有人在晋文公面前为介子推叫屈。晋文公猛然忆起旧事,心中有愧,马上差人去请介子推上朝受赏封官。可是,差人去了几趟,介子推不来。晋文公只好亲去请。可是,当晋文公来到介子推家时,只见大门紧闭。介子推不愿见他,已经背着老母躲进了绵山(今山西介休县东南)。晋文公便让他的御林军上绵山搜索,没有找到。于是,有人出了个主意说,不如放火烧山,三面点火,留下一方,大火起时介子推会自己走出来的。晋文公乃下令举火烧山,孰料大火烧了三天三夜,大火熄灭后,终究不见介子推出来。上山一看,介子推母子俩抱着一棵烧焦的大柳树已经死了。晋文公望着介子推的尸体哭拜一阵,然后安葬遗体,发现介子推脊梁堵着个柳树树洞,洞里好象有什么东西。掏出一看,原来是片衣襟,上面题了一首血诗:

  割肉奉君尽丹心,但愿主公常清明。
  柳下作鬼终不见,强似伴君作谏臣。
  倘若主公心有我,忆我之时常自省。
  臣在九泉心无愧,勤政清明复清明。


  晋文公将血书藏入袖中。然后把介子推和他的母亲分别安葬在那棵烧焦的大柳树下。为了纪念介子推,晋文公下令把绵山改为“介山”,在山上建立祠堂,并把放火烧山的这一天定为寒食节,晓谕全国,每年这天禁忌烟火,只吃寒食。

  走时,他伐了一段烧焦的柳木,到宫中做了双木屐,每天望着它叹道:“悲哉足下。”“足下”是古人下级对上级或同辈之间相互尊敬的称呼,据说就是来源于此。

  第二年,晋文公领着群臣,素服徒步登山祭奠,表示哀悼。行至坟前,只见那棵老柳树死树复活,绿枝千条,随风飘舞。晋文公望着复活的老柳树,像看见了介子推一样。他敬重地走到跟前,珍爱地掐了一下枝,编了一个圈儿戴在头上。祭扫后,晋文公把复活的老柳树赐名为“清明柳”,又把这天定为清明节。

  以后,晋文公常把血书袖在身边,作为鞭策自己执政的座佑铭。他勤政清明,励精图治,把国家治理得很好。

  此后,晋国的百姓得以安居乐业,对有功不居、不图富贵的介子推非常怀念。每逢他死的那天,大家禁止烟火来表示纪念。还用面粉和着枣泥,捏成燕子的模样,用杨柳条串起来,插在门上,召唤他的灵魂,这东西叫“之推燕”(介子推亦作介之推)。此后,寒食、清明成了全国百姓的隆重节日。每逢寒食,人们即不生火做饭,只吃冷食。在北方,老百姓只吃事先做好的冷食如枣饼、麦糕等;在南方,则多为青团和糯米糖藕。每届清明,人们把柳条编成圈儿戴在头上,把柳条枝插在房前屋后,以示怀念。

清明节习俗

清明节的习俗是丰富有趣的,除了讲究禁火、扫墓,还有踏青、荡秋千、蹴鞠、打马球、插柳等一系列风俗体育活动。相传这是因为清明节要寒食禁火,为了防止寒食冷餐伤身,所以大家来参加一些体育活动,以锻炼身体。因此,这个节日中既有祭扫新坟生别死离的悲酸泪,又有踏青游玩的欢笑声,是一个富有特色的节日。

  荡秋千
  这是我国古代清明节习俗。秋千,意即揪着皮绳而迁移。它的历史很古老,最早叫千秋,后为了避忌讳,改为秋千。古时的秋千多用树桠枝为架,再栓上彩带做成。后来逐步发展为用两根绳索加上踏板的秋千。打秋千不仅可以增进健康,而且可以培养勇敢精神,至今为人们特别是儿童所喜爱。

  蹴鞠
  鞠是一种皮球,球皮用皮革做成,球内用毛塞紧。蹴鞠,就是用足去踢球。这是古代清明节时人们喜爱的一种游戏。相传是黄帝发明的,最初目的是用来训练武士。

  踏青
  又叫春游。古时叫探春、寻春等。三月清明,春回大地,自然界到处呈现一派生机勃勃的景象,正是郊游的大好时光。我国民间长期保持着清明踏青的习惯。

  植树
  清明前后,春阳照临,春阳照临,春雨飞洒,种植树苗成活率高,成长快。因此,自古以来,我国就有清明植树的习惯。有人还把清明节叫作植树节”。植树风俗一直流传至今。1979年,人大常委会规定,每年三月十二日为我国植树节。这对动员全国各族人民积极开展绿化祖国活动,有着十分重要的意义。

  放风筝
  也是清明时节人们所喜爱的活动。每逢清明时节,人们不仅白天放,夜间也放。夜里在风筝下或风稳拉线上挂上一串串彩色的小灯笼,象闪烁的明星,被称为神灯”。过去,有的人把风筝放上蓝天后,便剪断牵线,任凭清风把它们送往天涯海角,据说这样能除病消灾,给自己带来好运。
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Announcements:童歌
Posted by: 維雄 颜 on Mar 20 2010 11:32
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IUVqxV6nEM8
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Announcements:中秋节 . Mooncake Festival .
Posted by: 維雄 颜 on Oct 2 2009 11:41

中秋节起源於中國,是東亞民间的一个传统节日,为每年农历的八月十五。中秋節不單單是華人的節慶,受中华文化的影响,中秋节也是日本、越南、朝鮮半島等地的传统节日。

按照中国的农历,八月为秋季的第二个月,古时称为仲秋,因此民间称为中秋,又称秋夕、八月节、八月半、月夕、月节,又因为这一天月亮满圆,象征团圆,又称为团圆节。
起源
中秋一词,最早见于《周礼》,《礼记·月令》上说:“仲秋之月养衰老,行糜粥饮食。”但并没有说明是八月的哪一天。

唐朝以后,中秋节才成为固定的节日。传说唐太宗梦游月宫,得到了霓裳羽衣曲,民间才开始盛行过中秋节的习俗。一般认为,中秋节开始盛行于宋朝,元末朱元璋起兵时以月饼秘密传递「八月十五日殺韃子(即蒙古)」訊息,洪武元年(1368年)朱元璋將月饼作为节令糕点赏赐群臣。明清时期,中秋节已经成为中国的一大传统节日。《正德江宁县志》载,中秋夜,南京人必赏月,合家赏月称為“庆团圆”,团坐聚饮稱為“圆月”,出游待市称為“走月”。

在香港維多利亞公園的花燈。(2005年)
北京龙潭湖中秋节的灯会上的二龙戏珠关于中秋節来源的傳說中,嫦娥奔月的故事最著名。该传说在民間有多個版本留傳,大致内容是:相傳在遠古時代的射日英雄后羿娶了嫦娥,並成為帝王,可是他愈來愈暴戾,多番施行惡政,成了大暴君。有一天,后羿从王母娘娘的手中求得到一包不死藥,只要吃了不死藥,就能成仙升天。嫦娥知道後就把不死藥全部吞下,然後变成了仙女,往月宮飛去。百姓们得知嫦娥奔月成仙后,纷纷在月下摆设香案,向嫦娥祈求平安吉祥,由此便逐渐形成了中秋节拜月的风俗。

各地中秋习俗
中秋赏月。
中秋赏月是中秋节的传统项目之一,《礼记》早有记载“秋暮夕月”,意为拜祭月神,逢此时则要举行迎寒和祭月,设香案。至唐宋时期,赏月之风更加盛行,关于中秋的诗词也层出不穷,包括辛弃疾的《木兰花慢 中秋》,苏轼的《水调歌头》。《东京梦华录》更有记载:“中秋夜,贵家结饰台榭,民间争占酒楼玩月”。

吃月饼。
赏月和吃月饼已经是中国各地过中秋节的必备习俗了,俗话...

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Announcements:一字一心 . One Word One Heart .
Posted by: 維雄 颜 on Sep 15 2009 09:04

(雪蘭莪‧巴生)

國慶到了!舉國各團体忙於為籌禮祝壽,並祈望它團結富強,公正平等的繁榮健康發展。

雪隆顏氏公會墨典文化中心書友,以“一字一心”之斗方形式表頌他們的祝賀與展望。共計52幅,象徵馬來西亞的52歲生日。

展覽是從29日起一連3天在此中心展出,時間是早上11時至下午4時。

展出的作品字大如斗,端雅大方,內容充滿對國家的關愛與希望,如“嚴”字象徵嚴法嚴治,和平安穩;“惜”字代表愛惜人才,國家得福等。展出了書友的心中之話,字字動人。

文章来源. 星洲日報/大都會‧2009.08.22

...

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Other:中元节 . GHOST FESTIVAL (CHINESE HALLOWEEN) .
Posted by: 維雄 颜 on Sep 6 2009 21:39

中元节
農曆七月十五日(有些地方,尤以中國南方,是七月十四日,相傳是宋代末年蒙古人入侵某地,居民為逃難而提早一天過節),道教稱為中元節,佛教稱為盂蘭盆節(簡稱盂蘭節),民間俗稱鬼節,七月半。
在漢字文化圈不少地區都有相關的節日活動,“先数日,市井卖冥器靴鞋、幞头帽子、金犀假带、五彩衣服。以纸糊架子盘游出卖。”。
相傳那一天,地獄大門打開,陰間的鬼魂會放禁出來。有子孫、後人祭祀的鬼魂回家去;無主孤魂的就到處遊蕩,徘徊於任何人跡可到的地方找東西吃。
所以人們紛紛在七月,以誦經作法等事舉行「普渡」,以普遍超度孤魂,防止它們為禍人間,又或祈求鬼魂幫助治病和保佑家宅平安。
因此一些地區在這一天有普渡的習俗,稱為中元普渡,後來更發展為盛大的祭典,稱為盂蘭勝會。


佛教典故
盂蘭盆節的和平祈福法會依照佛家的說法,农历七月十五日這天是僧徒功德圓滿的日子,佛教徒在當天舉行「盂蘭盆法會」供奉佛祖和僧人。
據大藏經的記載,「盂蘭盆(ullambana)」是梵語,「盂蘭」意思是「倒懸」;「盆」的意思是「救器」,所以,「盂蘭盆」的意思是用來救倒懸痛苦的器物,衍生出來的意思是:用盆子裝滿百味五果,供養佛陀和僧侶,以拯救入地獄的苦難眾生。這種儀式最早從南北朝時代目連救母的功德法會中開始流行。
相傳目連的母親做了很多壞事,死後變成了餓鬼,目連知道後十分傷心,就運用法力,將一些飯菜拿給母親吃 ,可是飯一到母親口邊就化為灰焰,釋迦牟尼佛告訴他,必須集合眾人的力量,於每年七月中以百味五果,置於盆中,供養十方僧人,以此般功德,其母方能濟度,目蓮依佛意行事,其母終得解脫。
後來這一傳說形成一種民間習俗,並逐漸演變,從供養僧人演變成供養鬼魂。每年到了農曆七月中,人們都會宰雞殺鴨,焚香燒衣,拜祭由地府出來的餓鬼,用以化解其怨氣,不致於為禍人間。久而久之,就有了盂蘭盆節這一節日。


道教說法
道家全年的盛會分三次(合稱為「三元」),認為「三元」就是天官、地官及水官「三官」的別稱,正月十五、七月十五以及十月十五各為三官大帝的誕辰。

正月十五日稱為「上元」——主要是舉行賜福的儀式。
七月十五日稱為「中元」——用以赦免亡魂的罪。(中元法事是為亡魂赦罪,但是絕對不能完全解除罪孽,只是減輕了一些,希望他們早日安息。)
十月十五日稱為「下元」——是為有過失的人解除厄運。
相傳七月地獄大門開放一個月,所有的無主孤魂全從陰間出來,到陽間找東西吃,因此各地方都紛紛在這一個月舉行「普度」的祭祀儀式。
從前,各地輪流進行普度,把七月的每一天安排得滿滿的,引起孤魂野鬼的酗酒、毆鬥事件;後來的普度便統一在七月十五日舉行。


民間信仰與祭典

中元普渡
在诸多华人社会如马来西亚、中國大陆、香港、台灣、新加坡等,中元是相當重要的民俗節日,不少人會在舊曆的七月初一到七月卅日之間,擇日舉辦祭祀活動,以慰在人世間遊玩的眾家鬼魂,並祈求全年的平安順利。
較為隆重者,甚至請來僧、道誦經作法超度亡魂。也有人會在這段時間,請出地藏菩薩佛像放置高台、或請藝師扮演驅魔大神鍾馗(有的是請藝師操控鍾馗之傀儡),以消弭死者亡魂的戾氣。
有些地方祭拜亡靈之前,會先祭拜一位名為面燃大士的神祇,俗稱「大士爺」(信徒多尊稱其為「普渡公」)。
相傳舊曆七月,所有在陽世的亡靈,都歸「大士爺」管理。這位神祇的來由有二說:一是祂是觀音大士的化身,故稱「大士爺」。二是祂原為諸鬼的首領,因受觀音大士教化而皈依其門下,從此被稱作「大士爺」,成為護持中元普渡事項的神明。
有的祭祀者為求隆重,會以紙紮出大士爺塑像,在祭祀期間,會將大士爺塑像放置供桌之前,以求祭祀順利。大士爺樣貌一般是:頂生二角、青面獠牙,高大威武,頭上還有一尊觀世音菩薩佛像,象徵其代表慈悲的觀音大士。

Ghost Festival
The Ghost Festival (simplified Chinese: 中元节; traditional Chinese: 中元節; pinyin: zhōngyuánjié, alternatively simplified Chinese: 鬼节; traditional Chinese: 鬼節; pinyin: guǐjié) is a traditional Chinese festival and holiday, which is celebrated by Chinese in many countries. In the Chinese calendar (a lunisolar calendar), the Ghost Festival is on the 15th night of the seventh lunar month.

In Chinese tradition, the fifteenth day of the seventh month in the lunar calendar is called Ghost Day and the seventh month in general is regarded as the Ghost Month (鬼月), in which ghosts and spirits, including those of the deceased ancestors, come out from the lower realm. During the Qingming Festival the living descendants pay homage to their ancestors and on Ghost Day, the deceased visit the living.

On the fifteenth day the three realms of Heaven, Hell and the realm of the living are open and both Taoists and Buddhists would perform rituals to transmute and absolve the sufferings of the deceased. Intrinsic to the Ghost Month is ancestor worship, where traditionally the filial piety of descendants extends to their ancestors even after their deaths. Activities during the month would include preparing ritualistic food offerings, burning incense, and burning joss paper, a papier-mache form of material items such as clothes, gold and other fine goods for the visiting spirits of the ancestors. Elaborate meals would be served with empty seats for each of the deceased in the family treating the deceased as if they are still living. Ancestor worship is what distinguishes Qingming Festival from Ghost Festival because the latter includes paying respects to all deceased, including the same and younger generations, while the former only includes older generations. Other festivities may include, buying and releasing miniature paper boats and lanterns on water, which signifies giving directions to the lost ghosts and spirits of the ancestors and other deities.

The Ghost Festival shares some similarities with the predominantly Mexican observance of El Día de los Muertos. Due to theme of ghosts and spirits, the festival is sometimes also known as the Chinese Halloween, though many have debated the difference between the two.


Buddhist Ghost Festival: Ullambana
Both Buddhists and Taoists claim that the Ghost Festival originated with their religion but its roots are probably in Chinese folk religion and antedates both religions (see Stephen Teiser's 1988 book, The Ghost Festival in Medieval China). In the Tang Dynasty, the Buddhist festival Ullambana and the Ghost Festival were mixed and celebrated together.

Ullambana origin
The Buddha's joyful day
To Buddhists, the seventh lunar month is a month of joy. This is because the fifteenth day of the seventh month is often known as the Buddha's joyful day and the day of rejoice for monks. The origins of the Buddha's joyful day can be found in various scriptures. When the Buddha was alive, his disciples meditated in the forests of India during the rainy season of summer. Three months later, on the fifteen day of the seventh month, they would emerge from the forests to celebrate the completion of their meditation and report their progress to the Buddha. In the Ullambana Sutra, the Buddha instructs his disciple Maudgalyāyana on how to obtain liberation for his mother, who had been reborn into a lower realm, by making food offerings to the sangha on the fifteenth day of the seventh month. Because the number of monks who attained enlightenment during that period was high, the Buddha was very pleased.


Mahāmaudgalyāyana saves his mother from hell
Food is offered to the ancestors during the annual Ghost FestivalThe Buddhist origins of the festival can be traced back to a story that originally came from India, but later took on culturally Chinese overtones. In the Ullambana Sutra, there is a descriptive account of a Buddhist monk named Mahāmaudgalyāyana, originally a brahmin youth who later ordained, and later becoming one of the Buddha's chief disciples. Mahāmaudgalyāyana was also known for having clairvoyant powers, an uncommon trait amongst monks.

After he attained arhatship, he began to think deeply of his parents, and wondered what happened to them. He used his clairvoyance to see where they were reborn and found his father in the heavenly realms i.e the realm of the gods. However, his mother had been reborn in a lower realm, known as the Realm of Hungry Ghosts. His mother took on the form of a hungry ghost (preta) – so called because it could not eat due to its highly thin & fragile throat in which no food could pass through, yet it was always hungry because it had a fat belly. His mother had been greedy with the money he left her. He had instructed her to kindly host any Buddhist monks that ever came her way, but instead she withheld her kindness and her money. It was for this reason she was reborn in the realm of hungry ghosts.

Mahāmaudgalyāyana eased his mother's suffering by receiving the instructions of feeding pretas from the Buddha. The Buddha instructed Mahāmaudgalyāyana to place pieces of food on a clean plate, reciting a mantra seven times, snap his fingers then tip the food on clean ground. By doing so, the preta's hunger was relieved and through these merits, his mother was reborn as a dog under the care of a noble family.

Mahāmaudgalyāyana also sought the Buddha's advice to help his mother gain a human birth. The Buddha established a day after the traditional summer retreat (the 15th day of the seventh month in the lunar calendar, usually mid-to-late August) on which Mahāmaudgalyāyana was to offer food and robes to 500 bhikkhus. Through the merits created, Mahāmaudgalyāyana's mother finally gained a human birth.

Due to Confucian influence, the offering became directed towards ancestors rather than the Sangha and ancestor worship has replaced the simple ritual of relieving the hunger of pretas. However, most Buddhist temples still continue the ancient practice of donating to the Sangha as well as to perform rituals for the hungry ghosts.


Festivities
A young girl performing on Ghost Festival in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The red seats in front are reserved for ghosts.The Ghost Festival is celebrated during the 7th month of the Chinese Lunar calendar. It also falls at the same time as a full moon, the new season, the fall harvest, the peak of Buddhist monastic asceticism, the rebirth of ancestors, and the assembly of the local community. During this month, the gates of hell are opened up and ghosts are free to roam the earth where they seek food and entertainment. These ghosts are believed to be ancestors of those who have forgotten to pay tribute to them after they had died, or those who have suffered deaths and were never given a proper ritual for a sendoff. They have long thin necks because they have not been fed by their family, or it is a sign of punishment so they are unable to swallow. Family members would offer prayers to their deceased relatives and would burn joss paper. Such paper items are only valid in the underworld, which is why they burn it as offering to the ghosts that have come from the gates of hell. Like in the material world, the afterlife is very similar in some aspects, and the paper effigies of material goods would provide comfort to those who have nothing in the afterlife. People would also burn other things such as paper houses, cars, servants and televisions to please the ghosts.

Families would also pay tribute to other unknown wandering ghosts so that these homeless souls would not intrude on their lives and bring misfortune and bad luck. A large feast is held for the ghosts on the 15th day of the 7th month, where everyone brings samplings of food and places them on the offering table to please the ghosts and ward off bad luck. In some East Asian countries today, live performances would be held and everyone was invited to attend. The first row of seats are always empty as this is where the ghosts would sit. The shows were always put on at night and at high volumes as the sound would attract and please the ghosts. Some shows include Chinese opera, dramas, and in some areas, even burlesque shows.
These acts are better known as "Merry-making".

For rituals, Buddhist and Taoists alike would hold ceremonies to relieve ghosts from suffering, many of them holding ceremonies in the afternoon or at night (as it is believed that the ghosts are released from hell when the sun sets). Altars are built for the deceased and priests and monks alike perform rituals for the benefit of ghosts. Monks and priests often throw rice or other small foods into the air in all directions to distribute them to the ghosts.

During the evening, incense is burnt in front of the doors of each household. Incense stands for prosperity in Chinese culture, so families believe that there is more prosperity in burning more incense.
During the festival, some shops are closed as they wanted to leave the streets open for the ghosts. In the middle of each street stood an altar of incense with fresh fruit and sacrifices displayed on it.

15 days after the festival, to make sure all the hungry ghosts find their way back to hell, people flow water lanterns and set them outside their houses (a practice mostly found amongst the Japanese). These lanterns are made by setting a lotus flower-shaped lantern on a paper boat. The lanterns are used to direct the ghosts back to the underworld, and when they go out, it symbolizes that they found their way back.

A difference between the two festivals
Buddhist monks perform a rite of feeding hungry ghosts during Ullambana.Chinese Buddhists often say that there is a difference between Ullambana and the traditional Chinese Zhongyuan Jie, usually saying people have mixed superstitions (such as burning joss paper items) and delusional thoughts, rather than think that Ullambana is actually a time of happiness. This time of happiness is sometimes used as a reason for the festival to be called as the Chinese Halloween.

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Other:世界时事 - 世界卫生大会呼吁国际社会共迎挑战. World News - World Health Assembly called on the international community were to Face Challenges
Posted by: 維雄 颜 on May 18 2009 20:51

世界卫生大会呼吁国际社会共迎挑战

甲流警戒级别可能提至最高级

本报综合消息62届世界卫生大会18日在日内瓦万国宫开幕。由于甲型H1N1流感正在一些国家和地区蔓延,本届会议格外引人注目。

预计,本届大会将重点讨论防范流感大流行等国际公共卫生问题。

联合国日内瓦办事处执行主任奥尔忠尼基泽在致词时说,在金融危机发生之际,甲型H1N1流感出现,公共卫生面临的挑战是全球性的,疾病无国界。国际社会应承担起责任,共同应对公共卫生面临的挑战。

上届世卫大会主席、圭亚那卫生部长拉姆萨米说,由于甲型H1N1流感出现,世界面临新的挑战,但各国没有对这种疾病让步。

随后,世卫大会选举斯里兰卡卫生部长德席尔瓦为本届大会主席。

世卫组织负责卫生安全和环境事务的助理总干事福田敬二博士当日在大会上表示,世卫组织正密切关注欧洲和日本等地的疫情,因为这些地方确诊案例激增,已成为除美洲以外受疫情影响最严重的地区。

欧洲媒体报道说,根据世卫组织的有关条例,日本的疫情有可能使得世卫组织将甲型H1N1流感警戒级别提升到最高的六级。如这成为现实,甲型H1N1流感将成为进入21世纪以来最大规模的流行疾病。

世卫组织于429日将甲型H1N1流感警戒级别升至五级。世卫组织曾表示,一旦有证据表明流感大规模地在美洲以外的地区暴发,就将警戒级别提升为六级。

19-05-2009 齐鲁晚报

World Health Assembly called on the international community were to Face Challenges

A flow-level alert may be raised to the highest level

Section 62 of our comprehensive information session on the 18th World Health Assembly in Geneva, Palais des Nations opened. Since the H1N1 Type A influenza is spreading in some countries and regions, particularly noticeable at this session.

Expected, this session will focus on prevention of influenza pandemic and other international public health issue.

Executive Director United Nations Office at Geneva Ordzhonikidze said in his speech in the financial crisis, the emergence of influenza A H1N1 influenza, public health challenge is global, disease without borders. The international community should assume responsibility, to jointly deal with the challenges facing public health.

President of the General Assembly the previous WHO, Guyana Minister of Health Ramsamy said that the emergence of influenza A H1N1 influenza, the world is facing new challenges, but the lack of concessions on the disease.

Subsequently, the WHO General Assembly elected the Minister of Health of Sri Lanka de Silva for the current President of the General Assembly.

WHO is responsible for health safety and environmental affairs, Assistant Director-General, Dr. Keiji Fukuda said in the General Assembly the same day, WHO is paying close attention to Europe and Japan and other places of the disease, as confirmed cases of proliferation of these places have become the exception of the Americas by the epidemic than most affected areas.

European media reported that, in accordance with the relevant WHO regulations, the epidemic situation in Japan is likely to make the WHO H1N1 Type A influenza alert to the highest level 6. If this becomes a reality, H1N1 Type A influenza in the 21st century will become the largest epidemic since the disease.

WHO on April 29 will be Type A influenza H1N1 alert level rose to 5. WHO has said that once there is evidence that large-scale influenza in an outbreak outside the Americas, it will be upgraded to a six-level alert.

19-05-2009 Qilu Evening News

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Other:母亲节. Mother's Day.
Posted by: 維雄 颜 on May 9 2009 11:37

母亲节(Mother's Day

  母亲节作为一个感谢母亲的节日,最早出现在古希腊,时间是每年的一月八日,而在美国加拿大和一些其他国家,则是每年5月的第二个星期天,其他一些国家的日期也并不一样(参见下面世界各国庆祝母亲节的时间都不尽相同)。母亲们在这一天通常会收到礼物。康乃馨被视为献给母亲的花。

起源(Origin)

  节日起源于古希腊。在这一天,古希腊人向希腊众神之母赫拉致敬。到古罗马时,这些活动的规模就变得更大,庆祝盛况往往持续达三天之久。当然,古时人们对女神的崇拜只不过是一种迷信,它同今天人们对母性的尊敬是大不相同的。在17世纪中叶,母亲节流传到英国,英国人把封斋期的第四个星期天作为母亲节。在这一天里,出门在外的年青人将回到家中,给他们的母亲带上一些小礼物。

  

  现代的母亲节起源于美国,由安娜·贾维斯(Anna Jarvis,18641948年)发起,她终身未婚,一直陪伴在母亲身边。安娜·贾维斯的母亲心地善良,极富同情心,她提出应设立一个纪念日来纪念默默无闻做出奉献的母亲们,可是这个愿望尚未实现她就逝世了。她的女儿安娜·贾维斯于1907年开始举办活动,申请将母亲节成为一个法定节日。节日于 1908510日在美国的西弗吉尼亚和宾夕法尼亚州正式开始。她曾亲自在教堂中安排仪式,组织活动,同时要求前来参加者胸前要佩戴白色的石竹花。这一活动,曾引起了不少人的关注和兴趣。翌年,便有更多的教堂纷纷组织同样的活动。

  1911年,庆祝母亲节的活动已经开展得非常广泛,不仅席卷美利坚合众国的每一个州,而且连加拿大、墨西哥和南美的一些国家也都开始庆祝这个节日。美利坚合众国人还把宣传母亲节的传单用十种不同文字印发到各国去,以便扩大影响。此后几年中,庆祝母亲节运动的热潮有增无已。1912年,美利坚合众国专门成立了母亲节国际协会。19135月,美利坚合众国众议院一致通过决议,号召总统以及内阁、参众两院和联邦政府的一切官员一律在母亲节佩戴白色石竹花。1914年,美利坚合众国国会正式命名5月的第二个星期日为母亲节,并要求总统发布宣言,号召政府官员在所有的公共建筑物上悬挂国旗。紧接着,威尔逊总统昭告全国公民也在自己的住宅上挂国旗以表达人们对美利坚合众国全体母亲的热爱和尊敬。此后美利坚合众国总统每年都要发表一篇内容相同的宣言。

1913年,美国国会确定将每年5月的第二个星期日作为法定的母亲节,并规定这一天家家户户都要悬挂国旗,表达对母亲的尊敬。而安娜·贾维斯的母亲生前最爱的康乃馨也就成了母亲节的象征

习俗(Habit & Custom)

  在胸前佩戴石竹花.颜色是有讲究的。那些母亲已经去世的人仍然佩戴白色石竹花,而母亲健在的人则佩戴红色石竹花。这一天,人们总要想方设法使母亲愉快地度过节日,感谢和补偿她们一年的辛勤劳动。最普通的方式是向母亲赠送母亲节卡片和礼物。节日里,每个母亲都会满怀喜悦的心情,接受孩子们和丈夫赠送的玫瑰花或其他花束、糖果、书和纪念品,特别是当她们收到小孩子们自己动手制作的上面用蜡笔稚气地写着妈妈,我爱你的字样的卡片时,更会感到格外自豪和欣慰。但最珍贵、最优厚的礼物还是把她们从日常的家务劳动中解放出来,轻松地休息一整天。这一天,许多家庭都由丈夫和孩子们把全部家务活包下来,母亲不必做饭,不必洗盘刷碗,也不必洗衣服。不少家庭还有侍候母亲在床上吃早饭的惯例。

  母亲节创立后,得到了全世界各国人民的支持。Amanm Jarvis在世时,设立母亲节的国家已达43个。时至今日,欢庆这个节日的国家就更多了。母亲节,已经成了一个名副其实的国际性节日。按惯例,国际母亲节被定在每年的511日举行。虽然,有一些国家是在一年中不同的时节庆祝属于他们的母亲节,然而,包括我国在内的多数国家,如丹麦芬兰意大利土耳其澳大利亚比利时等等,都是在5月的第二个星期日庆祝母亲节的。

世界各国庆祝母亲节的时间都不尽相同

  中国:五月的第二个星期日,会用卡片和康乃馨来表示爱

  挪威:母亲节定于二月的第二个星期天。

  阿根廷:则在十月的第二个星期天庆祝母亲节。

  黎巴嫩:在春天的第一天庆祝母亲节。

  南非:母亲节则定于五月的第一个星期天。

  南斯拉夫:南斯拉夫的塞尔维亚人称母亲节为Materice,于每年圣诞节的前两个礼拜庆祝。庆祝的习俗是:小孩子们在母亲节的清晨溜进母亲房间,将母亲绑在床上,母亲醒来时发现自己被五花大绑,便哀求孩子们放开她,并以她预先藏在枕头下的小礼物作为交换。

  西班牙葡萄牙的母亲节则与教会有密切的关系。128号是纪念圣母玛利亚的日子,同时也是孩子们表达对母亲的爱的节日。

  瑞典在五月的最后一个星期日庆祝母亲节。在母亲节前夕,瑞典红十字会会举办塑料制的母亲花的义卖,义卖所得将作为赞助育有许多小孩的母亲的度假经费。

  巴拿马:也叫圣灵怀胎的日,大意是为了让巴拿马人重视家庭,敬重母亲,所以在1924511日,巴拿马第一个母亲节,1930改为128日, doa Hercilia de Arosemena第一夫人所签定,但这只是这个网上的消息,不知是否准确,当时很多商号也响应了母亲节给母亲打折,并定为国定假日,非常有意义的节日。附西语介绍

  埃及:每年三月的最后一个星期五是埃及的母亲节。这一天,全国各地的青少年都要给母亲赠送鲜花和礼物,为母亲举办音乐会和文娱演出,并评选出全国最理想的母亲。

  印度:每年四月五日是印度的妈妈节。这一天,凡是生了孩子的妈妈都要穿上五彩缤纷的纱丽,戴上精美的首饰,来到公共场所尽情娱乐,以显示做母亲的女性风采。

  中非:每年五月二十九日,中非共和国就要隆重庆祝传统的妈妈节。这天,妈妈们身着盛装,怀抱孩子在首都班吉市举行盛大游行。国家领导人和政府官员也要参加她们节日的活动,使节日更加隆重热烈。

  法国:每年五月二十九日是法国的母亲节,节日这天,全球各地的妈妈都怀着喜悦的心情接受孩子们节日愉快的美好祝愿。法国首次庆祝母亲节是一九二八年,当时的法国总统为此颁布了一项法令:母亲节是国家的正式节日。法国人的母亲节则更像是一个为全家人举行的生日会。法国母亲节定在五月的最后一个星期天,全家人聚在一起享用晚餐,餐毕端出一个为母亲而做的蛋糕。

  泰国:每年的八月十二日是泰国的母亲节。节日期间,全国最有意义的活动是评选优秀母亲,然后,成千上万的女儿手持洁白的茉莉花作为母亲之花敬献给母亲,以表达感激之情。

  日本:每年十月的第三个星期日为日本母亲节。在日本,这个节日充满思的气氛。为表示对母亲的尊敬,这天,母亲健在的人,都戴一朵红花,而母亲辞世的人则戴白花,以示对母亲的怀念。

  加拿大:每年五月的第二个星期日为母亲节。在这天,家庭成员除向母亲送礼物外,并要做各种让母亲欢喜事情,以表示敬爱之情。

  瑞士:每年的一月一日至四日为妇女掌权日。在这四天里,家庭一切大权由妇女掌管,男人甘愿听从摆布,以示对妇女的尊重。

  希腊:每年的一月八日是英诺克莱西亚镇的妇女接管日。这一天,妇女接管镇上的领导权,而男人们则代替他们呆在家里干家务活。在希腊,每年逢除夕的第二天,为主妇休息日,妇女们丢下家务,尽情吃喝玩乐。

  德国:在每年的狂欢节里,另有妇女们的专门活动——“女人节。这天,妇女们冲进市政大厅,闯入办公室,坐上办公桌,以表示妇女接替政权。八月是汉堡市的太太节,节日里,由妇女组织的艺术团分别在全市各家剧院演出,节目内容大都是男女平等。

  英国:英格兰为表达对母亲们的敬意,乃订四旬斋(指复活节前夕之前,星期天除外的四十天)的第四个星期日为“MotheringSunday”,人们在这一天回家探视双亲,并致礼表示敬意。当时,有许多的穷人必须在有钱人家里当佣工,而被迫离家寄宿在主人家里,在这一天,主人们会放他们假,并鼓励他们返家与妈妈团聚。

  墨西哥:每年的十二月十二日是墨西哥的圣母节,以纪念一位心地善良、乐于救人的圣母。这天,人们身穿民族服装,高举圣母像旗帜,在老人的带领下载歌载舞。

  全世界的母亲节:虽然,许多国家是在一年中不同的时节庆祝属于他们的母亲节。然而,多数国家如丹麦、芬兰、意大利、土耳其、澳洲和比利时,都是在五月的第二个星期日庆祝母亲节的。

献给母亲的花(flowers to my mother)

  

母亲之花、母亲节的主花:康乃馨 

康乃馨花语:魅力、真情、母亲我爱你、温馨的祝福、热爱着你、

不求代价的母爱、亲情思念

 

香草:代表母亲品德高尚、高贵的花卉

勿忘我的花语:真实的爱、永恒的爱

台湾地区送母爱的主流花卉:羽扇豆

羽扇豆的花语:母爱

萱草的花语:永远爱你母亲,伟大的母爱,慈母

送客家母亲的主流花:鲁冰花

鲁冰花的花语和象征代表意义:母爱、刻苦耐劳、奉献

Mother's Day

The modern Mother's Day holiday was created by Anna Jarvis as a day for each family to honor their mother, and it's now celebrated on various days in many places around the world. It complements Father's Day, the celebration honoring fathers.

This holiday is relatively modern, being created at the start of the 20th century, and should not be confused with the early pagan and Christian traditions honoring mothers, or with the 16th century celebration of Mothering Sunday, which is also known as Mother's Day in the UK.

In most countries the Mother's Day celebration is a recent holiday derived from the original US celebration. Exceptions are, for example, the Mothering Sunday holiday in the UK.

It is celebrated in the United States each year on the second Sunday of May.

Historical antecedents

Different countries celebrate Mother's Day on various days of the year because the day has a number of different origins.

One school of thought claims this day emerged from a custom of mother worship in ancient Greece, which kept a festival to Cybele, a great mother of Greek gods. This festival was held around the Vernal Equinox around Asia Minor and eventually in Rome itself from the Ides of March (15 March) to 18 March.

The ancient Romans also had another holiday, Matronalia, that was dedicated to Juno, though mothers were usually given gifts on this day.

In addition to Mother's Day, International Women's Day is celebrated in many countries on March 8.

Spelling

In 1912, Anna Jarvis trademarked the phrases "second Sunday in May" and "Mother's Day", and created the Mother's Day International Association.

"She was specific about the location of the apostrophe; it was to be a singular possessive, for each family to honour their mother, not a plural possessive commemorating all mothers in the world."

This is also the spelling used by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson in the law making official the holiday in the U.S., by the U.S. Congress on bills, and by other U.S. presidents on their declarations.

Common usage in English language also dictates that the singular possessive "Mother's Day" is the preferred spelling.

Dates around the world

Mother's Day is celebrated on different days throughout the world. Examining the trends in Google searches for the term "mother's day" shows two primary results, the smaller one on the fourth Sunday in Lent, from the British tradition of Mothering Sunday (it is also called ladies day and women's day), and the larger one on the second Sunday in May.

The extent of the celebrations varies greatly. In some countries, it is potentially offensive to one's mother not to mark Mother's Day. In others, it is a little-known festival celebrated mainly by immigrants, or covered by the media as a taste of foreign culture (compare the celebrations of Diwali in the UK and the United States).

International history and traditions

In most countries, Mother's Day is a recent observance derived from the holiday as it has evolved in North America and Europe. Many African countries adopted the idea of one Mother's Day from the British tradition, although there are many festivals and events celebrating mothers within the many diverse cultures on the African continent that long pre-date colonization. In Nepal and other hindu tradition, its called "Mata Tirtha Aunshi" or "Mother Pilgrimage fortnight".

Nepal

Mata Tirtha Aunshi falls in the month of Baishak dark fortnight (April). This festival falls in the time of dark moon’s time which is why this called "Mata Tirtha Aunshi" derived from words: “Mata” meaning mother; “Tirtha” meaning pilgrimage. This festival is observed in the commemoration and respect of the mother which is celebrated by worshipping and gifting living mother or remembering mothers who have become immortal and are resting in peace. Going to Mata Tirtha Pilgrimage located towards the Kathmandu valley’s eastern side at Mata Tirtha Village development committee’s periphery is another tradition common in Nepal.


There is a very interesting legend regarding this pilgrimage. In ancient times Lord Krishna’s mother Devaki walked out her house to sight-see. She visited many places and delayed a lot to return back at her house. Lord Krishna became very unhappy because of his mother’s disappearance. So he went out in search of his mother to many places without success. Finally, when he reached “Mata Tirtha Kunda”, he happened to see his mother taking bath there in the spouts of that pond. Lord Krishna was very happy to find her there and narrated all of his tragedies in the absence of his mother. Mother Devaki said to lord Krishna that “oh! Son Krishna let then, this place be the pious rendezvous of children to meet their departed mothers”. So legends believe that since then this place had become a noted holy pilgrimage to see back a devotees’ deceased mother. Also legend believes that a devotee saw his mother’s image inside the pond and he happened to die falling there down. So still there is a small pond fenced by the iron rods in the place even on this present day as well. After the worship the pilgrimage enjoy there singing and dancing throughout the day in the festive mood. There is not evidence of happening of this legend as these are coming from elders based on ancient readings.

Japan

Mother's Day in Japan was initially commemorated during the Shōwa period as the birthday of Empress Kōjun (mother of Emperor Akihito). Nowadays it is a marketed holiday, and people typically give flowers such as carnations and roses as gifts.

China

In China, Mother's Day is becoming more popular, and carnations are a very popular gift and the most sold type of flower. In 1997 it was set as the day to help poor mothers, specially to remind people of the poor mothers on rural areas such as China's west. In the People's Daily, the Communist Party of China's journal, an article explained that "despite originating in the United States, people in China take the holiday with no hesitance because it goes in line with the country's traditional ethics -- respect to the elderly and filial piety to parents."

In recent years Communist Party of China's member Li Hanqiu began to advocate for the official adoption of Mother's Day in memory of Meng Mu, the mother of Mèng Zǐ, and formed a Non-governmental organization called Chinese Mothers' Festival Promotion Society, with the support of 100 Confucian scholars and lecturers of ethics. They also ask to replace the Western gift of carnations with lilies, which, on ancient times, were planted by Chinese mothers when children left home. It remains an unofficial festival, except in a small number of cities.

Greece

Mother's Day in Greece corresponds to the Eastern Orthodox feast day of the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple. Since the Theotokos (The Mother of God) appears prominently in this feast as the one who brought Christ to the Temple at Jerusalem, this feast is associated with mothers.

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Other:衛塞節. Vesak Day.
Posted by: 維雄 颜 on May 9 2009 06:58

衛塞節訂立

衛塞節,其實是把佛陀誕生、成道、湼槃,於同一日紀念。原來,據記載,佛陀5月的一個月圓之日出生;35年後又在5月的某月圓之日,於菩提樹下悟道;後來他湼槃那天,巧的也是5月的月圓之日。三者雖非同一天,卻全都在5月份,且有月圓之最大共同特點。於是,後世的佛教徒,便訂下在每年5月的第一個月圓日,慶祝衛塞節。Vesak在印度古代梵文的意思,正就是「月圓」解也。

成為國際節日

1950年,國際佛教團體世界佛教聯誼會World Fellowship of Buddhists, W.F.B.)在斯里蘭卡的首屆會議中,通過了慶祝衛塞節的決定,並「……請求各國政府領袖,為其國內多數或少數的佛教徒的存在,作出行動將五月的月圓之日定作公眾假期,以紀念佛陀-祂在全世界上是被譽為人類的最大利益者之一。」當然,衛塞節(或內容相類似的節日)的傳統實際上已經存在了多個世紀。

聯合國承認

1999年的第54聯合國大會上,由十六國代表共同簽署的信件中,請求了對「衛塞節的國際認同」。信中指出:「佛陀的教導,和祂的慈悲、和平、善良的信息感動了世界上千千萬萬的人。」「世界上無數的人跟隨佛陀的教導,而且在衛塞節紀念佛陀的誕生、成道、離世。」

同年,希臘挪威土耳其美國等國亦加入倡議行列。199912月,在聯合國的通訊發表中,表示有關衛塞節的倡議草案在沒有投票的情況下被採用。

衛塞節日期

基本上,衛塞節是以落在陽曆5月份的第一個月圓之日(望日),所以每年的對應西曆日子都稍有不同(一般而言在農曆四月十五左右)。有些國家,用佛教獨有的曆法來計算日子,會有差異。例如在2007年,馬來西亞的衛塞節訂於51日(農曆三月十五日),而新加坡則將其訂於531日(農曆四月十五日)。

  • 2006年 512
  • 2007年 51
  • 2008年 518
  • 2009年 59
  • 2010年 527

VESAK DAY - History

The decision to agree to celebrate Vesak as the Buddha’s birthday was formalized at the first Conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists held in Sri Lanka in 1950, although festivals at this time in the Buddhist world are a centuries-old tradition. The Resolution that was adopted at the World Conference reads as follows:

“That this Conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists, while recording its appreciation of the gracious act of His Majesty, the Maharaja of Nepal in making the full-moon day of Vesak a Public Holiday in Nepal, earnestly requests the Heads of Governments of all countries in which large or small number of Buddhists are to be found, to take steps to make the full-moon day in the month of May a Public Holiday in honour of the Buddha, who is universally acclaimed as one of the greatest benefactors of Humanity.”

On Vesak Day, Buddhists all over the world commemorate events of significance to Buddhists of all traditions: The birth, enlightenment and the passing away of Gautama Buddha. As Buddhism spread from India it was assimilated into many foreign cultures, and consequently Vesak is celebrated in many different ways all over the world.

The celebration of Vesak

May 2007 had two full moon days, the 1st and the 31st. Some countries (including Sri Lanka, Cambodia and Malaysia) celebrated Vesak on the 1st, while others (Thailand, Singapore) celebrated the holiday on the 31st due to different local lunar observance. This difference also manifests in the observance of other Buddhist holidays, which are traditionally observed at the local full moon.

On Vesak day, devout Buddhists and followers alike are expected and requested to assemble in their various temples before dawn for the ceremonial, and honorable, hoisting of the Buddhist flag and the singing of hymns in praise of the holy triple gem: The Buddha, The Dharma (his teachings), and The Sangha (his disciples). Devotees may bring simple offerings of flowers, candles and joss-sticks to lay at the feet of their teacher. These symbolic offerings are to remind followers that just as the beautiful flowers would wither away after a short while and the candles and joss-sticks would soon burn out, so too is life subject to decay and destruction. Devotees are enjoined to make a special effort to refrain from killing of any kind. They are encouraged to partake of vegetarian food for the day. In some countries, notably Sri Lanka, two days are set aside for the celebration of Vesak and all liquor shops and slaughter houses are closed by government decree during the two days. Also birds, insects and animals are released by the thousands in what is known as a 'symbolic act to liberation'; of giving freedom to those who are in captivity, imprisoned, or tortured against their will. Some devout Buddhists will wear a simple white dress and spend the whole day in temples with renewed determination to observe the Ten Precepts.

Devout Buddhists undertake to lead a noble life according to the teaching by making daily affirmations to observe the Five Precepts. However, on special days, notably new moon and full moon days, they observe the Ten Percepts to train themselves to practice morality, simplicity and humility.

Some temples also display a small image of the baby Buddha in front of the altar in a small basin filled with water and decorated with flowers, allowing devotees to pour water over the statue; it is symbolic of the cleansing of a practitioners bad karma, and to reenact the events following the Buddha's birth, when devas and spirits made heavenly offerings to him.

Devotees are expected to listen to talks given by monks. On this day monks will recite verses uttered by the Buddha twenty-five centuries ago, to invoke peace and happiness for the Government and the people. Buddhists are reminded to live in harmony with people of other faiths and to respect the beliefs of other people as the Buddha had taught.

Bringing happiness to others

Celebrating Vesak also means making special efforts to bring happiness to the unfortunate like the aged, the handicapped and the sick. To this day, Buddhists will distribute gifts in cash and kind to various charitable homes throughout the country. Vesak is also a time for great joy and happiness, expressed not by pandering to one’s appetites but by concentrating on useful activities such as decorating and illuminating temples, painting and creating exquisite scenes from the life of the Buddha for public dissemination. Devout Buddhists also vie with one another to provide refreshments and vegetarian food to followers who visit the temple to pay homage to the Enlightened One.

Paying homage to the Buddha

Tradition ascribes to the Buddha himself instruction on how to pay him homage. Just before he died, he saw his faithful attendant Ananda, weeping. The Buddha advised him not to weep, but to understand the universal law that all compounded things (including even his own body) must disintegrate. He advised everyone not to cry over the disintegration of the physical body but to regard his teachings (The Dhamma) as their teacher from then on, because only the Dhamma truth is eternal and not subject to the law of change. He also stressed that the way to pay homage to him was not merely by offering flowers, incense, and lights, but by truly and sincerely striving to follow his teachings. This is how devotees are expected to celebrate Vesak: to use the opportunity to reiterate their determination to lead noble lives, to develop their minds, to practise loving-kindness and to bring peace and harmony to humanity.

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Other:21个 [最难汉字]!你認得多少個? 21
Posted by: 維雄 颜 on May 5 2009 05:44

面對21最難漢字,就連漢字學專家、香港中文大學中國語言及文學系語文導師張錦少亦隻懂表中第14個字,其它均需查字典。

他說,眾字中不少是生僻字、古字,即是日常生活不常用的漢字,這些字不用太考究,因為認識也沒有用,日常根本不會用

  張錦少說,至今無正式統計共有多少漢字,國內較通行的大型字典《漢語大字典》收錄5.4萬字,《中華字海》更達8.5萬個。根據中大人類認知跨科比較研究室的現代漢語常用字頻率統計8090年代兩岸三地常用漢字約有46004900個。香港前教育署編制的《常用字字形表》則收字共4759個,綜觀中小學生所識的漢字約應有30004500個。

  香港浸會大學中文系系主任周國正也表示,雖然世上有6萬至8萬漢字,但多為不常用的,好多字,除了在字典之外,你一生都不會遇到。他說,一般人至中學畢業時雖僅認識3000多個漢字,但已夠看懂一般書刊98%內容。

  周國正說,中文需要不同詞語組合表達,故學懂字,不代表中文運用能力高,懂得造詞才是重要。他說:例如素服一詞,並非指朴實的服裝,而是指孝服。我們不可以只憑字,就解釋其意思。又說,有些字是以前王帝的名字,其臣民不能用,有些艱深的字則來自樂譜,在歲月流逝下,均已流失於日常生活。

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