James II of England & VII of Scotland and Ireland Stuart, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland

Born:Oct 14 1633 In:  St James Palace, City of Westminster, Greater London, England
Died:Sep 16 1701 (at age 67)In:  Château of St. Germain-en-Laye, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Île-de-France, France
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Immediate family

Anne (Duchess of York and Albany) King of England (House of Stuart)/ Stewart (born Hyde)
His wife
Charles Stuart
His son
Mary II Joint Queen of England with William III (born Queen of England (House of Orange) Stuart)
His daughter
James Stuart
His son
Anne (Good Queen) of Denmark and Norway, of Oldenburg (Oldenburg) (born Queen of England (House of Stuart))
His daughter
Charles Stewart
His son
Edgar Stuart
His son
Henrietta Stuart
His daughter
Catherine Stuart
His daughter
Mary Beatrice Eleanora Anne Margaret Isabella Stuart, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (born D'este De Modena)
His wife
Catherine Stuart
His daughter
Catherine Laura Stuart
His daughter
Isabella Stuart
His daughter
Elizabeth Stuart
His daughter
Charlotte Stuart
His daughter
Jane Stuart
His daughter
James Francis Edward Stuart - of England and Ireland, 8th. of Scotland
His son
Louisa Maria Stuart
His daughter
Charles I (Charles Ier d'Angleterre Charles I Stewart /King of England (1625/ The Martyr Károly King of England Knight of the Garter Duke of York King Charles the 1st of England Scotland and Ireland) King of England (House of Stuart)
His father
Henrietta Maria King of England (House of Stuart) (born of France)
His mother
Charles II (The Merry Monarch Prince Charles James King of England "Öld Rowley" / The Merry Monarch King of Scotland King of Ireland) King of England (House of Stuart)
His brother
Mary Henrietta (sometimes known familiarly as Minette Minette) Stuart
His sister
Elizabeth Stuart of England (born King of England (House of Stuart))
His sister
Anne Stuart
His sister
Catherine Stuart
His sister
Henry Stuart
His brother
Henrietta Anne Stuart
His sister

Work

King of England, King of Scots
Lord High Admiral (Governor of Portsmouth, Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports)
From 1636 To 1673

Personal info

Religion: He is best known for struggles with the English Parliament and his attempts to create religious liberty for English Roman Catholics and Protestant nonconformists against the wishes of the Anglican est - Catholic
Nationalities: England
Physical description: Scarred by smallpox

Source citations

Confidence: Direct and primary evidence
Citation text:

Charles James Stuart, Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay
Gender: Male
Birth: May 13 1629
Death: May 13 1629
Father: Charles I Stuart, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland
Mother: Henrietta Maria de Bourbon, Queen consort of England, Scotland and Ireland
Siblings: Charles II Stuart, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, Mary Henrietta Stuart, Princess Royal of Great Britain, Princess of Orange, James II/VII Stuart, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, Elizabeth Stuart of England (born Stuart), Princess of England, Anne Stuart, Princes of England and Scotland, Catherine Stuart, Princess of England, Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester, Henrietta Anne Stuart, Princess, Duchess of Orléans

Confidence: Direct and primary evidence
Citation text:

James II/VII Stuart, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland
Gender: Male
Birth: Oct 14 1633 - St. James's Palace, London, England
Baptism: Nov 24 1633 - St. James's Palace, St. James's, London, England
Occupation: King of England, King of Scots
Marriage: Spouse: Arabella Churchill, Royal Mistress of James II - Circa 1669 - Of, France
Death: Sep 16 1701 - Château of St. Germain-en-Laye, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Île-de-France, France
Burial: Sep 16 1701 - Chapel of St. Edmund, Church of the English Benectines, Rue St. Jacques, Paris, France
Father: Charles I Stuart, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland
Mother: Henrietta Maria de Bourbon, Queen consort of England, Scotland and Ireland
Wives: Anne Stewart (born Hyde), Duchess of York and of Albany, Mary Beatrice Eleanor Anne Margaret Isabel D'este De Modena, Princepissa, Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland, Elizabeth Stanhope (born Butler), Catherine of Braganza
partner: Mary Manning, Catherine Sedley, Countess of Dorchester
Ex-partner: Arabella Churchill, Royal Mistress of James II
Children: Charles Stuart, 1st Duke of Cambridge, Mary II Stuart, Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland, Katherine Darnley, James Stuart, Duke of Cambridge, Catherine Stuart, Princess of England and Scotland, Anne Stuart, Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland, Charlotte Maria Stuart, Princess of England, Henrietta FitzJames, Henry FitzJames, 1st Duke of Albemarle, Charles Stewart, Duke of Kendal, Edgar Stuart, Duke of Cambridge, Arabella FitzJames, James Darnley, Henrietta Stuart, Princess of England, Catherine Laura Stuart, Princess of England, Isabella Stuart, Princess of England, Elizabeth Stuart, Princess of England, James Francis Edward "The Old Pretender" Stuart, Prince Of Wales, James FitzJames Stuart, I. duc de Fitz-James, Jane Stuart, Princess of England, Louisa Maria Theresa Stuart, Princess Royal
Siblings: Charles James Stuart, Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay, Charles II Stuart, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, Mary Henrietta Stuart, Princess Royal of Great Britain, Princess of Orange, Elizabeth Stuart of England (born Stuart), Princess of England, Anne Stuart, Princes of England and Scotland, Catherine Stuart, Princess of England, Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester, Henrietta Anne Stuart, Princess, Duchess of Orléans

Confidence: Direct and primary evidence
Citation text:

James II/VII Stuart (born Duke of York), King of England, Scotland, and Ireland
Gender: Male
Birth: Oct 14 1633 - St. James's Palace, London, England
Baptism: Nov 24 1633 - St. James's Palace, St. James's, London, England
Occupation: King of England, King of Scots
Marriage: Spouse: Arabella Churchill, Royal Mistress of James II - Circa 1669 - Of, France
Death: Sep 16 1701 - Château of St. Germain-en-Laye, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Île-de-France, France
Burial: Sep 16 1701 - Chapel of St. Edmund, Church of the English Benectines, Rue St. Jacques, Paris, France
Father: Charles I Stuart, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland
Mother: Henrietta Maria de Bourbon, Queen consort of England, Scotland and Ireland
Wives: Henrietta Maria de Bourbon, Queen consort of England, Scotland and Ireland, Anne Stewart (born Hyde), Duchess of York and of Albany, Mary Beatrice Eleanor Anne Margaret Isabel D'este De Modena, Princepissa, Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland, Elizabeth Stanhope (born Butler), Catherine of Braganza
partner: Mary Manning, Catherine Sedley, Countess of Dorchester
Ex-partner: Arabella Churchill, Royal Mistress of James II
Children: Charles Stuart, 1st Duke of Cambridge, Mary II Stuart, Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland, James Stuart, Duke of Cambridge, Anne Stuart, Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland, Charles Stewart, Duke of Kendal, Edgar Stuart, Duke of Cambridge, Henrietta Stuart, Princess of England, Catherine Stuart, Princess of England and Scotland, Katherine Darnley, Arabella FitzJames, James Darnley, Catherine Laura Stuart, Princess of England, Isabella Stuart, Princess of England, Elizabeth Stuart, Princess of England, Charlotte Maria Stuart, Princess of England, James Francis Edward "The Old Pretender" Stuart, Prince Of Wales, James FitzJames Stuart, I. duc de Fitz-James, Jane Stuart, Princess of England, Louisa Maria Theresa Stuart, Princess Royal, Henrietta FitzJames, Henry FitzJames, 1st Duke of Albemarle
Siblings: Charles James Stuart, Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay, Charles II Stuart, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, Mary Henrietta Stuart, Princess Royal of Great Britain, Princess of Orange, Elizabeth Stuart of England (born Stuart), Princess of England, Anne Stuart, Princes of England and Scotland, Catherine Stuart, Princess of England, Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester, Henrietta Anne Stuart, Princess, Duchess of Orléans

Confidence: Direct and primary evidence
Citation text:

James II/VII Stuart (born Duke of York), King of England, Scotland, and Ireland
Gender: Male
Birth: Oct 14 1633 - St. James's Palace, London, England
Baptism: Nov 24 1633 - St. James's Palace, St. James's, London, England
Occupation: King of England, King of Scots
Marriage: Spouse: Arabella Churchill, Royal Mistress of James II - Circa 1669 - Of, France
Death: Sep 16 1701 - Château of St. Germain-en-Laye, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Île-de-France, France
Burial: Sep 16 1701 - Chapel of St. Edmund, Church of the English Benectines, Rue St. Jacques, Paris, France
Father: Charles I Stuart, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland
Mother: Henrietta Maria de Bourbon, Queen consort of England, Scotland and Ireland
Wives: Henrietta Maria de Bourbon, Queen consort of England, Scotland and Ireland, Anne Stewart (born Hyde), Duchess of York and of Albany, Mary Beatrice Eleanor Anne Margaret Isabel D'este De Modena, Princepissa, Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland, Elizabeth Stanhope (born Butler), Catherine of Braganza
partner: Mary Manning, Catherine Sedley, Countess of Dorchester
Ex-partner: Arabella Churchill, Royal Mistress of James II
Children: Charles Stuart, 1st Duke of Cambridge, Mary II Stuart, Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland, James Stuart, Duke of Cambridge, Anne Stuart, Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland, Charles Stewart, Duke of Kendal, Edgar Stuart, Duke of Cambridge, Henrietta Stuart, Princess of England, Catherine Stuart, Princess of England and Scotland, Katherine Darnley, Arabella FitzJames, James Darnley, Catherine Laura Stuart, Princess of England, Isabella Stuart, Princess of England, Elizabeth Stuart, Princess of England, Charlotte Maria Stuart, Princess of England, James Francis Edward "The Old Pretender" Stuart, Prince Of Wales, James FitzJames Stuart, I. duc de Fitz-James, Jane Stuart, Princess of England, Louisa Maria Theresa Stuart, Princess Royal, Henrietta FitzJames, Henry FitzJames, 1st Duke of Albemarle
Siblings: Charles James Stuart, Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay, Charles II Stuart, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, Mary Henrietta Stuart, Princess Royal of Great Britain, Princess of Orange, Elizabeth Stuart of England (born Stuart), Princess of England, Anne Stuart, Princes of England and Scotland, Catherine Stuart, Princess of England, Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester, Henrietta Anne Stuart, Princess, Duchess of Orléans

Matched to: https://www.myheritage.com/person-1501606_197248391_197248391/james-ii-of-england-vii-of-scotland-ireland-stuart-king
Citation text:
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Biography

James II was the second surviving son of Charles I and younger brother of Charles II. He was created Duke of York, and was in Oxford during the Civil War. After the defeat of the Royalists he escaped with his mother and brother to The Hague and then exile in France. His father was executed in 1649. James served in the French army and later in the Spanish Army. After the death of Cromwell and the restoration of the monarchy he returned to England where his brother had been crowned Charles II.

James was created Lord High Admiral and warden of the Cinque Ports, and commanded the Royal Navy during the 2nd and 3rd Anglo-Dutch wars. He created controversy when in 1660 he married Anne Hyde a commoner and daughter of Charles’s chief minister Edward Hyde. They had 7 children but only two survived infancy - Mary (later Queen Mary II) and Anne (later Queen Anne). His daughters were raised as Protestants but, influenced by his time in France and Spain, James converted to Catholicism in 1670. Following Anne Hyde’s death in 1671, he married Mary of Modena a 15 year old Italian Catholic princess. James’s critics described her as ‘an agent of the Pope’.

Parliament became alarmed at the prospect of Catholic succession and in 1673 passed the Test Act which excluded Catholics from political office. In 1679 Shaftesbury attempted to introduce an Exclusion Bill to exclude James from the succession and substitute Charles’s illegitimate son the Duke of Monmouth, but this was rebutted by Charles who dissolved Parliament. James became King James II on the death of his brother in 1685. He soon faced two rebellions intent on removing him in Scotland by the Duke of Argyll, and from an army raised by the Duke of Monmouth which was defeated by John Churchill (6th great grandfather of Winston Churchill) in July 1685 at the Battle of Sedgemoor in Somerset. The Monmouth rebels were brutally punished by Judge Jeffrey’s Bloody Assizes. James, believing his Divine Right as King, issued the Declaration of Indulgence to suspend the Test Act and promote his Catholic supporters in Parliament. The Archbishop of Canterbury and seven other bishops were arrested and tried for sedition. Amidst widespread alarm, the birth in 1688 of his Catholic heir James (James Edward Stuart) prompted a group of nobles to invite Prince William of Orange (who had married James daughter Mary) from the Netherlands to England to restore Protestantism and democracy.

William of Orange landed at Torbay on 5 November 1688 in 463 ships unopposed by the Royal Navy, and with an army of 14,000 troops which gathering local support grew to over 20,000 and advanced on London in what became known as ‘The Glorious Revolution’. Many from James’s army including Churchill and James’s daughter Anne defected to support William. James lost his nerve and fled to France throwing the Great Seal of the Realm into the River Thames. His daughter Mary was declared Queen, but she insisted on joint rule with her husband and they were crowned King William III and Queen Mary II. James and his wife and son lived in exile in France as guests of Louis XIV. James landed in Ireland in 1689 with French troops in an attempt to regain the throne and advanced on Londonderry, but was defeated by William at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690. He lived the rest of his life in exile. His son James Edward Stuart (The Old Pretender) and grandson Charles (Bonnie Prince Charlie) made unsuccessful attempts to restore the Jacobite throne in 1715 and 1745.

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