Clan Colla 425 null Surname DNA Project

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Member Count: 435
Surnames
Agnew, Alexander, Almond, Arnold, Beagan, Beaghan, Beaghen, Beaman, Beamen, Beamon, Beamond, Beamont, Beamound, Beamount, Beaumond, Beaumont, Beeman, Beemen, Beemon, Beggan, Beggin, Beggins, Beman, Bemen, Bemon, Bennett, Biggin, Biggins, Bigham, Bird, Bourd, Boyce, Boylan, Boylen, Broad, Brock, Byrd, Byrde, Cahill, Cairn, Cairnes, Cairns, Calkin, Calkins, Campbell, Cana, Cann, Cannell, Canny, Carberry, Carbery, Cariel, Carill, Caroll, Carrel, Carrell, Carrill, Carrol, Carrole, Carroll, Cartan, Carten, Carthainn, Carton, Caryll, Casey, Cashin, Cassidy, Cassidy (in Coole), Chamney, Clan Colla, Clarke, Clochar, Coal, Coalas, Coale, Coales, Coen, Cohen, Cole, Coles, Colgan, Colin, Colla, Collas, Collin, Collins, COLLS, Con, Conan, Coneley, Conelly, Conely, Conlay, Conleay, Conlee, Conley, Conly, Conn, Connally, Conneally, Connelley, Connelly, Connely, Connoley, Connolly, Connolly (in Fermanagh), Connoly, Conoly, Coole, Cooley, Cooney, Corrigan, Corry, Coscry, Cosgrach, Cosgrave, Cosgraye, Cotton, Coull, Coulls, Court, Cowan, Cowels, Cowle, Cowles, Cowlls, Cowls, Cuairt, Cuart, Cuarta, Culhane, Culkin, Cullen, Cullin, Currie, Curry, Cusker, Davin, Davine, de Vine, de Wine, Devane, Devenney, Devers, Devin, Devine, Diver, Divers, Divin, Divine, Doherty, Donegan, Donelan, Donelly, Dongan, Donnegan, Donnellan, Donnelly, Duane, Duff, Duffie, Duffy, Dunegan, Dwane, Dwyer, DYF371, DYF371X, DYS 505, DYS425, Eagan, Egan, Elliott (of Scotland), Ennis, Enright, Eoger, Eogers, Faraher, Feehan, Flanagan, Flinn, Flood, Flynn, Fogarty, Gafney, Garvey, Gavan, Gilchreest, Gillchreest, Gillduff, Godwin, Griffin, Guin, Guinidhe/O'Guin, Guire, Gurry, Guthrie, Hale, Hanratty, Hanratty (Enright), Hart, Harte, Hartt, Hartte, Harty, Healy, Heaney, Hegney, Hewson, Hewston, Higgins, Holland, Holligan, Hoolahan, Hort, Houston, Howard (of England), Hughes, Hughson, Joy, Joyce, Karel, Karol, Kearin, Kearins, Kearn, Kearney, Kearns, Keenan, Keenan (in Fermanagh), Kelly, Kenna, Kennedy, Keogh, Kerans, Kerin, Kern, Kerns, Kewesh, Kewis, Kewish, Kieran, Kiernan, Killduff, Kinitty, Kohl, Kohle, Kohler, Kohn, Kol, Kole, Kolea, Kolee, Kolel, Lahin, Lally, Lalor, Lamont, Lane, Lannin, Larkin, Laury, Lavan, Lawler, Lawlor, Leahy, Lee, Lehane, Lester, Linch, Linskey, Little, Loftus, Loingsy, Looney, Lord, Love, Lynch, Lynn, Lynskey, M’cord, M’Corde, Ma Grath, Mac Allister, Mac Ardle, Mac Cabe, Mac Cann, Mac Clean, Mac Cormaic, Mac Craith, Mac Cusker, Mac Daniel, Mac Donald, Mac Donnell, Mac Dougald, Mac Dougall, Mac Dowell, Mac Egan, Mac Elligott, Mac Evoy, Mac Gafraidh, Mac Gilfinan, Mac Gilmichael, Mac Gilmore, Mac Hale, Mac Hugh, Mac Ivir, Mac Ivor, Mac Kenna, Mac Mahon, Mac Manus, Mac Mathghamhna, Mac Mathuna, Mac Mathúna, Mac Neny, Mac Oscar, Mac Osgar, Mac Quillian, Mac Rory, Mac Sheehy, Mac Tague, Mac Ternan, Mac Tully, Mac Uidhir, Mac Veagh, Mac Veigh, MacAfee, MacAlister, MacAlisters, MacAllan, MacAllister, MaCan, MacAodh, MacArdell, MacArdle, MacAulay, MacAuley, MacBrock, MacCabe, MacCabe (in Monaghan/ Caven), MacCafferty, MacCaffrey, MacCairn, MacCalkin, MacCalkins, MacCann, MacCanna, MacCartins, MacCartons, MacCassidy, MacCassity, MacCathan, MacCauley, MacCiarnain, MacClean, MacCoard, MacCoonan, MacCord, MacCoskar, MacCourt, MacCourts, MacCraith, MacCuairt, MacCuarta, MacCulkin, MacCusker, MacDaniel, MacDomhnaill (of Clan Kelly), MacDonald, MacDonald (of Scotland), MacDonell, MacDonnel, MacDonnell, MacDonnell (of Antrim), MacDonnell (of Clan Kelly), MacDougald, MacDougall, MacDougals, MacDowell, MacDuff, MacDuffee, MacDuffie, MacDuffy, MacDugal, MacEgan, MacElligott, MacEory, MacEvoy, MacFee, MacFetridge, MacFie, Mac'fighearnain, MacGafney, MacGilfinan, MacGilladuff, MacGilmiehael, MacGilmore, MacGofraidh, MacGorry, MacGraw, MacGuire, MacGuthrigh, MacGwyre, MacHale, MacHugh, MacIntyres, MacIvir, MacIvor, MacKay, MacKenna, MacKey, MacKgan, MacKiernan, MacKorda, Maclvir, MacMaghnusa, MacMahon, MacManus, MacManuse, MacNeny, MacNeny (Bird), MacOscar, MacOsgar, Macowis, MacPharson, MacPhee, MacPherson, MacPhie, MacQuillan, MacQuillan (in Antrim), MacQuillian, MacQuire, MacRobeartaighe, MacRoiberd, MacRory, MacRory (Rogers), MacRury, MacSheehy, MacSheely, MacTague, MacTernan, MacTiernan, MacTighernain, MacTighernan, MacTully, MacUais, MacUidhir, Mac-Uidhir, MacVeagh, MacVeigh, MacVeigh (in West Meath), Madden, Mag Uidhir, Magee, Magee (in Down/Antrim), Magh Uidhir, Maghan, Magnan, Magofrey, Magrath, MagUidhir, Mag-Uidhir, Maguire, Maguthrie, Mahan, Mahon, Main, Makan, MakCorde, Malone, Manachain, Mangan, Manis, Mann, Maolcuairt, Maolcuairts, Maolruanaidh, MArdle, Martin, Masterson, Mathews, Mathgamna, Matthews, Maughan, Mc Kenna, Mc Quillian, McAfee, McArdle, McAulay, McAuley, McCaffery, McCaffrey, McCaghey, McCall, McCally, McCan, McCann, McCanney, McCaulay, McCauley, McCaulley, McChord, McCoard, McCoish, McColly, McConnell, McConnolly, McCooish, McCOOL, McCord, McCordie, McCordy, McCormick, McCorr, McCourt, McCourtie, McCourty, McCoy, McCue, McCuis, McCuish, McCuy, McDanal, McDaniel, McDonald, McDonnell, McDougal, McDougald, McDougall, McDougle, McDuff, McDuffe, McDuffee, McDuffie, McDuffy, McEnnis, McFee, McFie, McGann, McGee, McGinnes, McGrath, McGuier, McGuire, McGuyer, McGwier, McGwire, McHugh, McInnes, McKann, McKay, McKee, McKenna, McKeown, McKey, McKiernan, McKinney, Mclvor, McMahan, McMahen, McMahon, McMann, McManus, McMaster, M'Cowis, McPhee, McPhie, McPhillips, McQuillan, McQuillen, McQuillian, McQuillin, McQuilling, McQuillon, McQuire, McRorey, McTernan, McTiernan, McTierney, McToal, McTurnan, McVey, Meguiar, Meguire, Meicc h-Uidir, Meicc-Uidhir, Meldon, M'Guire, Mican, Mitchell, Monaghan, Monahan, Moneghan, Montague, Mooney, Moore, Morgan, Morris, Mourne, Moynagh, Mughdhorn, Muldoon, Mullally, Mulrooney, Multully, Muregan, Murrin, Naghtan, Naghten, Naun, Nawn, Neal, Nealan, Neillan, Noble, Norton, Null 425, NULL425, Ó Daimhín, O' Devine, Ó Dubhdara, Ó Duibhín, O Hanlon, Ó hEignigh, Ó hÉignigh, O Loghan, Ó Maolruanaidh, O’Carten, O’Cartin, O’Carton, O’Hanlons, O’Hart (in Tara), O'Boylan, O'Boylen, O'Brassil, O'Brien, O'Cairn, O'Callaghan, O'Carriel, O'Carroll (of Oriel), O'Cartan, O'Ciarnain, O'Coilean, O'Coilen, O'Connelly, O'Connolly, O'Connor, O'Connor (of Oriel), O'Cooney, O'Corry, O'Cosgras, O'Cullen, O'Cullin, O'Darrah, O'Davin, Odhar, O'Donnell, O'Donnellean, O'Dubhdara, O'Duffy, O'Dwyer, O'Egan, O'Flanagan, O'Flynn, O'Guin, O'Hanlon, O'Hanratty, O'Hanraty, O'Hart, O'Heaney, O'Heenan, O'hEignigh, O'Kelly, O'Keran, O'Lannan, O'Leathain, O'Loghan, O'Loghanan, O'Loghnan, O'Loingsigh, O'Lynn, O'Madagan, O'Madden, O'Manachain, O'Maolruanaidh, O'Mooney, O'Neillan, O'Neny, Orr, O'Seaghain, O'Tierney, O'Tierny, O'Tighearnaigh, O'Tighearnaigh., O'Tully, O'Tyernie, Oulahan, Ouseley, Parsons, Plunkett, Quillan, Quillen, Quiney, Rhydderch, Robeartach, Roberts, Robertson, Robins, Robinson, Roche, Rodderick, Roderick, Rodgers, Rodric, Rodrick, Rogan, Roger, Rogers, Rogerson, Ronan, Ronayne, Rooney, Rory, Rowney, Sachsen, Sandy, Saunders, Saunderson, Segan, Shannon, Shea, Shean, Sheehy, Sheely, Sheoghaidh, Slevin, Slevine, Spears, Taerney, Tarney, Tearney, Teirney, Ternay, Terney, Terny, Thierny, Tiernan, Tierney, Tiernie, Tierny, Tighearna, Tully, Turney, Tyernie, Ui Mhic Carthainn, Uidhar, Uidhir, Vey, Wesley
Description
The ancient genealogies record that the Three Collas lived in Ireland around 300 A.D., and their descendants have been kings, lords, chiefs, and saints down through the ages. The Collas were warlike princes, the sons of Eochy Doimhlein, son of Cairbre Lifeachar a legendary High King of Ireland. The Three Collas conquered Ulster in the battle of Achadh Leithdheirg, by defeating the forces of King Fergus Foga at Emain Macha aroudn 330 A.D. The territory conquered by the three Collas comprised the present day counties of Louth, Monaghan, and Armagh. Colla da Chrioch was the founder and first King of the Kingdom of Oriel. Colla da Chrioch died about the year 357 AD. Many of the Clan Colla progeny were styled Kings of Oriel, down to the twelfth century. Since the Colla DNA signature would be passed down from father to son… a Y-chromosome test (67 markers) for male participants is required. There is no cost for joining additional projects at FTDNA, if you've already been tested at FT-DNA.
Background

Welcome to the Clan Colla 425 Null Project!

Please read the following very important information

Only join this project if you have had Y-DNA tested (DNA from a male tester), and your predicted haplogroup must be of the R1b type. Just having a Family Finder test done is not adequate, or even advisable.  The Family Finder test and mt-dna testing will not help you track your paternal ancestry.

Also if you've been tested at 67 markers you need to have a Null value (0) for marker DYS 425.  If you have not ordered a upgrade to at least 67 markers, it is very advisable that you do this. 

This DNA project is not one of the very general projects such as Ireland DNA, and it is not a general surname catch all, where anyone can join no matter what their DNA markers are.  And not everyone who has one of the listed surnames, will necessarily have markers that match the signature DNA of the Collas.  Most testers will not match the DNA profile that is required to be a part of this project.  As well, the highest expectation of having Colla DNA may be no better than about 50% if you have a Colla surname. 

Project Administrators

  • Josiah McGuire. Josiah McGuire had his DNA tested in 2004. In early 2005 he recognized that he matched several other people with Colla surnames and began studying those matches. After upgrading to 67 markers in 2006, Josiah learned that he had a null value for marker 425, as did the other Colla surnames. In 2007 Josiah computed modal values for the DNA of the Three Collas and put it on Ysearch with the user ID of DURRQ. In June 2009, he started the Clan Colla 425 null at FTDNA to attract Clan Colla descendants, encourage upgrades to the 67-marker test, and promote Clan Colla research. He is also the administrator of the Mag-Uidhir Clan Project. Josiah's DNA is kit #23171. His genetic distance from the Colla Modal DNA is 9. He traces his family back to the eponymous Josiah McGuire, who was born in 1794 in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Josiah lives in Indiana, USA. His email address is: j_j_mcguire@msn.com.

  • Peter Biggins. Peter had his DNA tested at FTDNA in 2008. When he realized with Josiah's help in May 2009 that he was descended from the Three Collas, he added a webpage on the "DNA of the Three Collas" to his genealogy website called PetersPioneers. Peter is an administrator of the Biggins Project, the Drueke Project, the Carroll Project, the Null 425 Project, the Middlesex Genealogical Society Project, and the Ely Carroll Project at FTDNA as well as the Clan Colla Null 425 Project. His DNA is kit #127469. His genetic distance from the Colla Modal DNA is 6. Peter has traced his family back to Patrick Biggins (Beggan), who was born in 1807 in Ireland, most likely Drumgill, County Cavan. Peter lives in Connecticut, USA, where he is a director of the Middlesex Genealogical Society. His email address is: pabiggin@optonline.net

  • Patrick McMahon. Patrick Ciaran McMahon had his DNA test in 2009. He is an administrator of the Clan Colla Null 425 Project. In addition to being a fellow Colla descendant, Patrick spent a good part of his career working as a geneticist and lives in Ireland. Patrick's DNA is kit #145687. His genetic distance from the Colla Modal DNA is 4. Patrick has an advanced degree in genetics from Trinity College Dublin. He has traced his family back to Faolan MacMathghamhna (Felim/Phelan MacMahon), who lived in County Monaghan in the early 12th century (see 49 Generations: Colla to McMahon). Patrick lives in Gorey, Ireland. His email address is: patgorey@yahoo.co.uk

  •  Terry McGuire. Dr. Terry R. McGuire had his DNA tested at FTDNA in 2011. He became an administrator of the Clan Colla Null 425 Project in September 2013. Terry's DNA is kit #209574. His genetic distance from the 67-marker Colla Modal DNA is 7. He traces his Colla ancestry back to James A. McGuire who was born in 1822 in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania. Terry is Professor and Vice Chair of the Deparment of Genetics at Rutgers University. He received his B.A. from the Ohio State University and his Ph.D. from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He has published in many different areas including Mendelian and mathematical genetics, behavioral and neural genetics, and ecological genetics. See his Profile Page for research and publications. He has 35 years of experience with teaching genetics at both the graduate and undergraduate levels. He uses the Colla project in class to show how the Y chromosome can be used in genealogy. Terry lives in Clinton, New Jersey, USA. His email address is: mcguire@dls.rutgers.edu

  • Thomas Roderick, 1930-2013. Thomas Huston Roderick PhD, passed away September 4, 2013, at home in Bar Harbor, Maine, USA. He had his DNA tested at FTDNA in 2003. He was administrator of the Roderick-Rhydderch Family Project at FTDNA as well as the Clan Colla Null 425 Project. Tom's DNA is kit #8551. His genetic distance from the Colla Modal DNA is 8. He had recruited 13 other Rodericks to the Clan Colla project. Tom graduated from the University of Michigan in philosophy in 1952 and zoology in 1953 and from the University of California, Berkeley, with a PhD in 1959. He then joined The Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, as a staff scientist in genetics where he remained for 37 years. Tom cofounded the Center for Human Genetics. He was a member of the National Genealogical Society and had traced his family back to Rhydderch Evan who was born circa 1700 in Llantrisant, Glamorgan, Wales. Tom had also been a research geneticist and an Associate Editor of the Journal of Genetic Genealogy. Tom was one of the original members of the international Human Genome Organisation in 1988. Obituary

The Traditional Story

The ancient genealogies record that the Three Collas lived in Ireland during the early part of the 4th century, and that their descendants have been kings, lords, chiefs, and saints down through the ages. The Collas were warlike princes, the sons of Eochy Doimhlein, son of Cairbre Lifeachar the legendary High King of Ireland.  The Three Collas (under the sponsorship of the King of the Connachta) conquered Ulster in the battle of Achadh Leithdheirg, by defeating the forces of king Fergus Foga, at Emain Macha.  The territory conquered by the three Collas comprised the present day counties of Louth, Monaghan, and Armagh.  Colla da Crioch was the founder and first King of the Kingdom of Oriel; and died about the year 357 AD. Many of the Clan Colla progeny were styled Kings of Oriel, down to the twelfth century.

In the Book of Ballymote, written in 1390AD, it stated that Cairpri Daim Airgit (Argait), King of Airgialla, (Kingdom of Oriel) died 513AD. This King of Airgialla is six generations down from Colla da Crioch. The King had seven sons; three of them were... Cormac from whom the Maguires descend; Nadsluaigh from whom the McMahons and Carrolls descend; and Daimhin from whom the Boylans and Kellys descend. Colla da Crioch was one of the Three Collas who sought to restore the monarchy to their line. At one point, the Three Collas were exiled from Ireland and made to live in Scotland, however through the influence of the King of Alba, and the intervention of the Druids, the Collas were pardoned by the Irish King, and were invited back to Ireland.

Generally for historical references, we rely on John O'Hart, who provided two lists of Colla descendents in his Irish Pedigrees; or, the Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation, published in 1892 (3rd edition): one list is on pages 669-670 of Volume I and the other is on page 577 of Volume II. For a consolided list, in alphabetic order without regard to O' and Mac, see Descendants of the Three Collas.  Jim McMahon has created a valuable resource on the history of Clan Colla and their descendants. See Clan McMahon of the Kingdom of Oriel.  Another good resource for studying the Collas is Kingdom of Airghialla by Dennis Walsh.  See also Peter Biggins website the Clan Colla DNA Study 

Others such as Donald M. Schlegel have questioned the traditional story and have suggested a different theory about the origins of the Three Collas.  For more details, see further below in the paragraphs titled "Other possible origins".

The DNA story

The above traditional story led us to wonder if DNA analysis of these various Colla surnames might lead to a better understanding of who "The Three Collas" were, and where they may have originated from.  For more details, see the website: Clan Colla DNA Study 

What defines Clan Colla DNA?

SNPs markers:
..... haplogroup R1b1a2a1a1b4 (or L21 positive) - further SNPs downstream of L21 are DF21+


STR markers:  
..... 425=0 (100%)

….. 505=9 (100%)
..... 511=9 (98% = 9, and 2%=10) 

GD ( Genetic Distance ) to the Clan Colla modal:
..... 11 or less (our members range from 1 to 11 on 67 markers)

A Clan Colla modal haplotype has been established at Ysearch called DURRQ. You can use the DURRQ id to search for individuals matching Clan Colla. The DURRQ modal represents the most common markers for the participants in this project, and others outside of this project who also have Colla surname, and a 425 null. The Clan Colla modal was calculated using the McGee Y-DNA Comparison Utility. To see the Clan Colla modal markers, please click here DURRQ.

Etymological theory for the Collas

An earlier spelling for Colla was Conlae, and "The Three Collas" were also known as "Na Trí Collai".  Their names were Conlae Uais, Conlae Menn, and Conlae Fochri (collectively known as "The Three Collas"). Historian/gealogist O'Rahilly wrote a short section on the derivation of the name Colla.  Based on variant forms of the name appearing in the Irish MS., O' Rahilly says the name Colla stands for an earlier Conlae; apparently as Irish evolved the earlier " nl " turned into " ll ".  O'Rahilly also mentions other variant forms of spelling; Conla, Conlae, and Condla. O'Rahilly sees Conlae as similar to the Gaulish "Condollios, derived from Condollos, ie, conn (head, chief) plus ollos (great). O'Rahilly states Condollios probably means son of Condollos.

Could "The Three Collas" be anciently derived from the Conii (or Cynetes), a pre-Roman tribe from the Iberian Peninsula.  Past DNA studies have shown the similarities between the DNA of people in Ireland and those in Spain and the Iberian area.

The Conii or Cynetes were one of the pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula, living in today's Algarve and Low Alentejo regions of southern Portugal before the 6th century BCE (in what was to become the southern part of the Roman province of Lusitania). They are often mentioned in the ancient sources under various designations, mostly Greek or Latin derivatives of their two tribal names: ‘Cynetas’/’Cynetum’; ‘Kunetes’, ‘Kunetas’, and ‘Kunesioi' or ‘Cuneus’, followed by ‘Konioi’, ‘Kouneon’ and ‘Kouneous’/‘Kouneoi’.  Inscriptions in the Tartessian language have been found in the area, in a variety often referred to as Southwest Paleohispanic script.  The name Conii, found in Strabo, seems to have been identical with the Cynesii, who were mentioned by Herodotus as the westernmost dwellers of Europe and distinguished by him from the Celts.

The main city of the country of the Conii (or Cynetes) was Conistorgis, according to Strabo, who considered the region Celtic.   In the local language Conistorgis probably means "City of the Conii".  It was located somewhere in the interior of the Algarve, in southernmost Portugal, although the exact location is unknown.  The Conii had made an alliance with the Romans during the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula. This led to the city's destruction by the indigenous Iberian confederation, led by the Lusitanians, during the Lusitanian War against Rome from 155 to 139 BC.

The Conii’s city Conistorgis was destroyed apparently for their alliance with the Romans, this would make the Conii basically homeless.  It would then be reasonable to assume that the Conii would now be in search for a new home, away from their destroyed city, and their apparently new enemies the Lusitanians who led the destruction of their city.  According to Herodotus the Conii are listed as the westernmost dwellers of Europe and distinguished by him from the Celts.  The westernmost part of Europe is of course Ireland, and this would be consistent with the story of the Collas being in Ireland.  The Collas ancient ancestors (the Cynetes or Conii if this theory holds) may have left the Iberian Peninsula area after their city was destroyed during the Lusitanian War sometime between 155 and 139 BC.  This would place the ancestors to the Collas in the westernmost areas (the early British Isles) as Herodotus had mentioned about the Conii.

The Celtic Encyclopedia: Volume 1 - Page 160  (pages 159 – 160), The Conii were a coastal people whose inscriptions show that they spoke a mixture of Goidel and Brythonic Celtic languages. ... lands of nearby Ithaca ( Andalucla, Spain) and/or the earlier BC 15th century Goidel invasion of Ireland. ...

Cynetes - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia  The name Conii, found in Strabo, seems to have been identical with the Cynesii, who were mentioned by Herodotus as the westernmost dwellers of Europe…

Other possible origins

In 1998, Donald M. Schlegel, suggested (in his article "The Origin of the Three Collas and the Fall of Emain" in the Clogher Record), that "The Three Collas" were Romanized Celtic Britons from the Trinovantes, a celtic tribe from Colchester, the oldest recorded Roman town in England.  He wrote as well, that the Collas are perhaps the only instance in prehistoric or early historic Ireland of three brothers having each a personal name, a name in common, and an epithet. His implication being that such a naming convention must have been imported, and the obvious source is the Roman Empire.  He proposed that the Collas received military training from the Romans and eventually went to Ireland and became military leaders in service of the King of Ireland.  Schlegal also wrote concerning the early town of Colchester that... "As late as the middle ages, the western gate of the city of Colchester was pointed out as the site of King Coel's Castle."  And he suggested that the Collas may have possibly be linked back to the legendary figure King Cole.

Also in his book, Donald said that Coir Anmann reported that the Collas were also called Coll-ni in the ancient books.  He wrote that the name Coll-ni might be derived from the name of the River Colne that runs through the middle of Colchester.  He suggested that the two names Coll-ni and Colne looked and sounded similar to each other. As well, one might point out that Coll-ni looks and possibly sounds very similar to Conii.  Conii is described a paragraph or two above this one.

On Page 179 of Schlegel's summary, he says:
 
"...there is no strong reason to reject the story of the three Collas, who under the sponsorship of the King of the Connachta conquered southern and north-central Ulster and were the ancestors of the Airghialla.  There are hints and clues that suggest that the three Collas were Romanized Britons, originating in the tribe named Trinovantes; used Colla as their nomen..."

Full details:  "The Origin of the Three Collas and the Fall of Emain" by Donald M. Schlegel.   http://www.peterspioneers.com/schlegel.pdf

Colchester Background History - (Various source references and text [links above and below] are found on Wikipedia.)

The name Colchester is from Latin: the place-name suffixes chester, cester, and caster derive from the Latin word castrum (fortified place). In folk etymology the name Colchester was thought of as meaning Cole's Castle, though it actually means the Roman fort Colonia (plural coloniae).  Colonia was originally a Roman Empire outpost established in conquered territory to secure it. Eventually, however, the term came to denote the highest status of Roman city.  Coloniae also included towns founded by Rome to house those who held Roman citizenship. In Britain this usually meant those who had completed their military service in the Legions and were thus owed a grant of land by the state; see Marian Reforms.

Other earlier associated names for Colchester were Colecester, Colcestre, and Colcestria.

Camulodunum is the Roman name for the ancient settlement which is today's Colchester, a town in Essex, England. Camulodunum is claimed to be the oldest town in Britain as recorded by the Romans, existing as a Celtic settlement before the Roman conquest, when it became the first Roman town, and eventually a settlement of discharged Roman soldiers, known as Colonia Claudia Victricensis. There is archaeological evidence of settlement 3,000 years ago. Its Celtic name was "Camulodunon", meaning "the Fortress of Camulos" (Camulos being a British god equated with the Roman Mars). This name was modified to the Roman spelling of "Camulodunum".

Camulodunon was the capital of the Trinovantes tribe, who built an impressive system of earthwork defences to the west and south of the town. It was probably established as their capital by Addedomarus, a king known from his inscribed coins dating to around 25 - 10 BC (at the time of Caesar's invasions of Britain in 55 and 54 BC, the tribe were probably based at Braughing).  Colchester was the only place in the province of Britannia where samian ware was produced (for a short time). Roman brick making and wine growing also took place in the area. Bricks have been made in Colchester (or in the surrounding area) for around 2,000 years.

A Roman legionary fortress or castrum, the first permanent legionary fortress to be built in Britain, was established at Camulodunum in 43. A veteran colony was established in an effort to subdue the Silures and as part of an attempt at Romanisation.[6] Later it became a colonia – a settlement of discharged Roman soldiers – and the principal city of Roman Britain. A Roman monumental temple was built there c. 44 and was dedicated to the emperor Claudius.[7]

According to Tacitus, in 60/61 when the Iceni and Trinovantes under Boudica revolted against Roman rule, the city was undefended by fortifications,[8] and was only garrisoned by 200 members of the procurator's guard.[9] The rebels destroyed the city. The settlement was a target for the rebels because the veterans who inhabited the city "drove people out of their houses, ejected them from their farms, called them captives and slaves".[8]

Local legend places Colchester as the seat of King Cole (or Coel) of the rhyme Old King Cole, a legendary ancient king of Britain.

The Calkins Family origins

The Calkins family represented in our project traces its ancestry back to 16th-century Chester, England, just north of the Wales border.  Calkins is a spelling variant of Culkin and MacCulkin, which O'Hart says were descended from Colca (or Colcan).  O'Hart also lists Colcan as descending from Colla da Chrioch.  The Calkins name may have derived it's spelling origin from the "Colcan" name and with time, it was changed from Col-can to Cal-kin and Calkins. Or alternately the descendants (or the clan people) associated with King Cole may have adopted the term Coles-Kin or Cole-kin, which may have morphed over to Col-kin, and then over to Calkin.

One of our project administrators, Geneticist Patrick McMahon, believes that the Calkins surname may have have derived it spelling directly from the Colla Clan itself.  Patrick's thoughts on the origins of this Calkins family is below.

"A similar argument could be made for yet another family, the Calkins, who are also of Clan Colla and come from Cheshire/North Wales, being proto Colla and originating in another Roman Town, Chester. Equally, they could have come from any part of Britain, propelled westward by the Romans following failed uprisings such as Bodicea’s in East Anglia. This family might bear a derivative of the original tribal name, Colla Kinsmen or abbreviated to Colla-kin."  And Colla-kin then changed over to Calkin.

Back to the legendary story about King Cole:

In the legend Helena, the daughter of Cole, married the Roman senator Constantius Chlorus, who had been sent by Rome as an ambassador and was named as Cole's successor. Helena's son became Emperor Constantine I. Helena was canonised as Saint Helena of Constantinople and is credited with finding the true cross and the remains of the Magi. She is now the patron saint of Colchester. This is recognised in the emblem of Colchester: a cross and three crowns. The Mayor's medallion contains a Byzantine style icon of Saint Helena.

Colchester has also been suggested as one of the potential sites of Camelot, on account of having been the capital of Roman Britain, and because of its spelling similarity to the ancient name of Camulodunum.

Goals

Please read the following very important information

Only join this project if you have had Y-DNA tested (DNA from a male tester), and your predicted haplogroup must be of the R1b type.   Just having a Family Finder test done is not adequate, or even advisable.  The Family Finder test and mt-dna testing will not help you track your paternal ancestry.

Also if you've been tested at 67 markers you need to have a Null value (0) for marker DYS 425.  If you have not ordered a upgrade to at least 67 markers, it is very advisable that you do this. 

This DNA project is not one of the very general projects such as Ireland DNA, and it is not a general surname catch all, where anyone can join no matter what their DNA markers are.  And not everyone who has one of the listed surnames, will necessarily have markers that match the signature DNA of the Collas.  Most testers will not match the DNA profile that is required to be a part of this project.  As well, the highest expectation of having Colla DNA may be no better than about 50% if you have a Colla surname.

Goals for the Project

The goal of the Clan Colla 425 null Project is to use Y-DNA analysis to test certain hypothesis and theories about the origins of The Three Collas and the surnames descended from them.  Can a relationship be seen for those participants carrying the DYS425 null and surnames with origins in the Kingdom of Oriel? And if so, are the ancient Oriel surnames with the 425 null descended from The Three Collas?

We expect participants that are fully haplogroup tested, to all be from the same haplogroup, L21 positive. And below L21, we carry the DF21 SNP.  For a full explanation about What is Clan Colla DNA? - see the Results page.

Participant Requirements

Our requirements for joining this project are the following:


1. Everyone must have 67 markers tested.
2. Everyone also must have the null value at 425.
3. Everyone must at least be predicted  R1b1a2, or have one of its subgroups that would likely test out to be DF21 positive.

If a participant meets these requirements, but have not yet tested at 67 markers, their kit numbers will be placed in the "High chance of having Colla DNA, pending upgrade to 67 markers" group... or the "Low chance of having Colla DNA, pending upgrade to 67 markers" group.

Recommended Additional Testing

1. Upgrade your kit to 67 markers - the unique null value for our testers on marker DYS 425 is found in this upgrade. 
 

2. New Y-DNA111 test - highest resolution Y-DNA test offered. View our FAQ section to learn more.

In all of the Ft-DNA projects searched thus far, only Clan Colla testers will have a unique value of 9 for marker DYS 505.  DYS 505 is marker number 76 of the 111 marker upgrade.
 

DYS 505 = 9 searches in projects as of Feb 13, 2012 

Project Name No. of participants No. of testers with the 505=9 Breifne Clans DNA project
News
  • Project launched June 22, 2009!
  • New 111 marker Y-DNA tests ordered April, 2011
  • 7th International DNA conference - Peter and Tom attended; Peter gave presentation: Houston Slides, November 2011

Clan families of Today

The Clan Donald DNA Project website gives some interesting aspects about the survivability of the existing lines that are represented today, and how "daughtering out" has changed the landscape of the DNA results thus measured. Some of their write up is contained below.
 

"Male lines regularly “daughter out.” Computer analysis of historical data indicates that as many as 95% of the males lines of 1000 years ago have daughtered out. It has happened within the senior lines of the Lords of the Isles, within the senior lines of the Glengarrys, and the Captains of Clanranald. Mark and his fourth cousin represent two dots in the pink group of the R1bs. At this time, both current points on the chart are likely to disappear by the next generation leaving descendants only through daughters. Clan Donald's historic pattern of active warfare and galloglas service, coupled with sons becoming Catholic priests, would accentuate this likelihood of daughtering out. One aspect of this “daughtering out” process is referred to as genetic drift. As lines disappear through war, disease, or “daughtering out” a relatively few core values become a higher and higher proportion of the overall male population. The “successful” grandfather lines become fewer and fewer. The lines we see on the DNA results charts probably represent no more than 10% of the lines existing within Clan Donald 500 years ago."


Clan Colla Surnames - participants who have joined the project.

Alexander. (also Sandison and Sanders) are variations of McDonald origins. See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1892 (3rd edition), Vol. I, pgs. 527, 528-536.

Beeman. Ananglicazation of McBee, which is a variant of McVeagh.  The MacVeighs were descended from Colla Uais.  See O’Hart, 1892, vol. 1, p. 565. And also see Beeman DNA project  and McVeagh.

Biggins, Little. Variants include Beagan, Beaghen, Beggan, and Little (beag is Irish for small). They descend from the Maguires. Gerard Beggan of Carrickmacross, County Monaghan, heard this from, Peadar Livingstone, and DNA has confirmed it.

Boylan, Boylen. And also O'Boylan, and O'Boylen. Boylans are descended from Baodin, son of Tuatan, son of Tuathal, son of Daimhin (or Daimine), a son of Cairpri Daim Airgit (King of Orgiall), and descended from Muredach Colla da Crioch. See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1892 (5th edition), Vol. I, pgs. p. 365, p. 420, 669 and 671.
The O'Boylan (Ó Baoighealláin) sept are cited as early kings of Darty (Dairtre) in Orghialla. O'Dugan mentions the Muinter Baoigheallain in his Topographical Poem. From the same stock as the O'Flanagans of Fermanagh, the territory of Ó Baoigheallain (O Boylan) during early medieval times, as lords of Airgialla, stretched from Fermanagh to Louth before being reduced by the MacMahons. See Boylans, Click and scroll down about two thirds of the way (under Dartraige). See also famliy website, Boylan Roots., and O'Boylans.

Calkins. Calkins is likely a variant spelling of Culkin and MacCulkin, which O'Hart says were descended from Colca (or Colcan). O'Hart also lists Colcan as descending from Colla da Chrioch. See O'Hart, Irish pedigrees - published in 1876, pgs. 120, 202, & 389; and 1892 (5th edition), Vol. I, pgs. 608 and 714.

The Calkins family represented in our project traces its ancestry back to 16th-century Chester, England, just north of the Wales border.  Local legend places Colchester as the seat of King Cole (or Coel) of the rhyme Old King Cole, a legendary ancient king of Britain.

The Calkins name may have derived it's spelling origin from the "Colcan" name and with time, it was changed from Col-can to Cal-kin and Calkins. Or alternately the descendants (or the clan people) associated with King Cole may have adopted the term Coles-Kin or Cole-kin, which may have morphed over to Col-kin, and then over to Calkin.

One of our project administrators, Geneticist Patrick McMahon, believes that the Calkins surname may have have derived it spelling directly from the Colla Clan itself.  Patrick's thoughts on the origins of this Calkins family is below.

"A similar argument could be made for yet another family, the Calkins, who are also of Clan Colla and come from Cheshire/North Wales, being proto Colla and originating in another Roman Town, Chester. Equally, they could have come from any part of Britain, propelled westward by the Romans following failed uprisings such as Bodicea’s in East Anglia. This family might bear a derivative of the original tribal name, Colla Kinsmen or abbreviated to Colla-kin."  And Colla-kin the changed over to Calkin.

Callaghan. O'Callaghans of Oriel are descended from Muredach Colla da Crioch. See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1892 (5th edition), Vol. I, pgs. 178 & 670.

Callan, Collins. Callan (Ó Cathaláin of Fearnmhaigh) "p. 121. The eponymous ancestor of the O Cearbhaill (O'Carroll) was Cearbhall, who died about 950...Cearbhall son of Maol Pol son of Foghartach was in the eleventh generation down from Nad Sluaigh and so belonged to the Ui Nadsluaigh, a division of the Ui Cremthainn. The eponym of the latter, Crimthann son of Fiach son of Daigh Dorn, is represented in the traditional genealogies as a grandson of Daigh Dorn son of Rochaidh son of Colla Dha Chrioch." "p.122. The O Cathalain descend from this Cathalan O Criochain, whose grandfather Criochan appears to have been the son of Lorcan son of Donnagan, this Donnagan (died 879, lord of Fearnmagh) being the paternal uncle of Cearbhall son of Maol Pol son of Foghartach, eponym of the O Cearbhaill mentioned above." Found in Donohoe - Report 5, Subgroup O1, p. 121-122. Click "About", then scroll down to the reports.

Carroll. Carrolls are descended from Muredach Colla da Crioch. There were several distinct O'Carroll families. The Colla O'Carrolls were kings of Oriel (parts of counties Louth and Monaghan). The eponymous head of the O'Carroll clan was Cearbhall, who was King of Orgiall in St Patrick's time. Land for St Patrick’s first church site was granted to the "Apostle of Ireland" by a Pagan chieftain named Daire or Darius, a prince of Orgiall, and a descendant of Colla-da-Chrioch. The O'Carrolls continued kings of Oriel to the year 1250. See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1892 (5th edition), Vol. I, pgs. 178, 379 & 671.

Cartin. The origins of the Cartin surname can be traced back to 446 AD as described in the Annals of Ulster as the Ui Meic Carthainn.  Some of the surname variations are Carton, Carten, Cartan, Cartin, Carthainn, MacCartons, and MacCartins.  Erc son of Colla Uais had a son named Cairthend by which the Ui meic Carthainn were established.  The Ui meic Carthainn were one of the tribes of the Airgialla.  See Cartin.

Connolly, Conley. O'Hart listed them among the principal families of Clan Colla. He said they were chiefs in Fermanagh, and were listed as part of one of the four tribes of Tara, and princes of Tara. The Connollys were a Gaelic family that emerged in ancient times in Monaghan. They were descended from Congal, a 10th century chief of the southern Hy Niall. The family Connolly name sept though... claim descendancy from Mahon, brother of the great King Brian Boru of Ireland. The sept flourished for the next three or four centuries. Notable amongst the family was Connolly of Monaghan. A Conley descended through Mahon would probably have Colla da Crioch roots. See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1881 (3rd edition), p. 509 and 669; and in 1892 (5th edition), Vol. I, pg. 454.

Dever, Devers.  Devers according to O'Hart are descended from Fiachan. This is the same ancestor that the Feehans are descended from (Fiachan), who is listed eight generations below Daimhin (or Daimine), a son of Cairpri Daim Airgit (King of Orgiall), and descended from Muredach Colla da Crioch. See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1892 (5th edition), Vol. I, pgs. 669 & 671.

Devine. Devines, Devins, Davins are descended from Daimhin (or Daimine), a son of Cairpri Daim Airgit (King of Orgiall, and descended from Muredach Colla da Crioch). They were lords of Fermanagh. See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1892 (5th edition), Vol. I, pgs. 403 and 669.

Donoghue. O'Donoghoes were chiefs in Teallach Modharain in County Meath. Variant of McDonaghy, which is listed as descending from a Maguire in Reports 2 & 5 of the Breifne Clans Project, posted at Clan Donohoe website. This line of Donoghues may be descended from Donnchadh Ceallach Maguire (d. 1473) son of Aodh Óg (Hugh the Hospitable), son of Pilib na Tuaigh Maguire (Philip of the Axe). And therefore they would be descended from Muredach Colla da Crioch. For more info. see Donohoe - Report 5, Subgroup O1 Click "About", then scroll down to the reports.

Duffy. Duffys are descended from Muredach Colla da Crioch. Duffy has long been one of the most numerous names in Monaghan. See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1892 (5th edition), Vol. I, p. 670.

Feehan. Ancestor O'Fiachain, anglicised Feehan, Fian, Fyans, Fynes, and Vaughan. Feehans are descended from Fiachan, who is listed eight generations below Daimhin (or Daimine), a son of Cairpri Daim Airgit (King of Orgiall), and descended from Muredach Colla da Crioch. See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1892 (5th edition), Vol. I, pgs. 446, 513 & 671.

Goggins. Goggins may be a spelling variation of Cogan, Coggan, Coggins. Goggins may also be just a variant of Calkins. As a variant of Calkins, this participant may possibly descend from Colga (of Uster) a son of Ceallach, the ancestor of the Clan Kellys of Fermanagh. See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1892 (5th edition), Vol. 1 ‎ - Pages 671.

Hart, O'Hart. John O'Hart wrote that at least one lineage of this family are descended from the ancestor of the Kellys of Ulster, which were descended from Daimhin (son of Cairpri Daim Airgit, King of Oriel)... and who was descended from Colla da Chrioch. The Kellys of Ulster were located in the country of Fermanagh. The O'Hart lineage from these Kellys follows: Ceallach (ancestor to the Kellys), Colga, Donall, Fionnachtach, Art, Donall, and down to Felim O'Hart the first of this family to assume this surname. See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1892 (5th edition), Vol. I, pg. 672.

Heaney. There were several septs with variant spellings for this surname. One of the most prominent clans in Fermanagh prior to the Maguire ascendancy was the Clann Lugain made up of the Ó hEignigh, Ó Maolruanaidh and Ó Dubhdara families. The ancient sept originating from Oriel was called O'hEignigh. The Ó hEignigh and Maolruanaidh septs were noted as kings of Fermanagh until becoming tributary to the Maguires around 1202. They were descendants of Mulrooney, 104th King of Oriel, who was descended from Colla da Crioch. See O'Hart, 1892 (5th edition), Vol. I, p.818 and p.672.

Herrington. A variant of Harrington. I believe Harrington is descended from Colla da Chioch... through Colga (Clan Colgan) a son of Ceallach, the ancestor of the Clan Kellys of Fermanagh. The references for Harrington are not very clear, and their path is uncertain. The known references are not linked together very well. See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1892 (5th edition), Vol. 1 ‎ - Pages 484 and 671.

Higgins. Higgins' are descended from Muredach Colla da Crioch. There are multiple septs of Higgins. There is a O'Higgin (or Higgins) origin described as through Cosgrach - who was said to be the ancestor of O'Aedhagan, and that this was Anglicised O'Higgin by some, and also Egan and MacEgan by others. This origin does go back to to Colla da Chrioch. See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1892 (5th edition), Vol. I, pg. 669.

Hugh, Hughes. Hughes (or MacHugh) is a anglicized form of MacAodh.  MacAodh is linked with the Maguire pedigree.  See "MacHugh of Ulster" in John O’Hart's book published in 1892, Vol. I, Page542.

Kelly, O'Kelly.  An old Gaelic clan name, Ó Ceallaigh (anglicisized as O'Kelly). This name is derived from Ceallach, a celebrated chief of the ninth century, who is the ancestor of the O'Kellys. From DNA analysis it appears that the Kellys of Hy-Maine are different from the Kellys of Ulster, or those Kellys who would have been from Oriel and descended from Daimhin, King or Orgiall.

The Kellys represented in this project would have descended from a branch of the Clan Colla of Orgiall in Ulster, and are of the same descent as the MacMahons, lords of Monaghan; Maguires, lords of Fermanagh; O'Hanlons, lords of Orior in Armagh, etc. In the fourth century, Main Mor or "Main the Great", a chief of the Clan Colla, conquered a colony of the Firbolgs in Connaught; and the territory so conquered, which was possessed by his posterity, was after him called Hy-Maine (signifying the territory possessed by the descendants of Main), which has been Latinized "Hy-Mania" and "I-Mania."  See Main Mor, Clan Colla and O'Kelly (in John O'Hart's book).  It appears according to DNA analysis that John O'Hart was incorrect in claiming that the Kellys of Hy-Maine were descended from Clan Colla.  The first Chief of the name was Tadhg Mór Ua Cellaigh, 36th King of Uí Maine.

There appears to be more than one origin for the Kelly surname. There were O'Kellys who were descended from Iomchadh, the 2nd son of Colla da Chrioch; and there were also Kellys who were descended from Daimhin, son of Cairpri Daim Airgit, King of Oriel... who was also a descendant of Chrioch. see Kellys of Fermanagh through Daimhin, King of Orgiall.  As well, as mentioned earlier the Kellys of Hy-Maine seem to have their own origins too.

John O'Hart wrote this concerning the 2nd origin of the name; Ceallach, his son; a quo Clan Kelly, in the country of Fermanagh, and from whom descended Kelly of Ulster. The MacDomhnaill family native to Fermanagh were descended from Clan Kelly, of Ulster. The MacDomhnaill name was also anglicized to MacDonnell, MacDaniel, Daniel, O’Donnell; and probably McDonald as well. Kellys of these various origins are ultimately descended from Muredach Colla da Crioch. See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1892 (5th edition), Vol. I, pgs. 669 and 671-672.

Kern. A variantof Kearns and Cairns,and according to John O'Hart, he wrote that they were descended from a sidebranch of the same line as "Clan Kelly" of Fermanagh, and the O’Harts;both who were descendants of Colla da Chrioch.  They were descended from Foghartach,from whom descended the Ulsterfamilies of Cairn, Kern,Cairns,Flanagan, Donnellan.  See O’Hart. 1892 (5thedition) Vol. 1, Page374.

Lawlor, O'Lawlor, Lawler. According to John O'Hart's book Irish Pedigrees; or the Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation, volume 1, on page 514 it says that the surname Lawlor and MacMahon share the same line.  Lawlors of Monaghan are said to descend from Donachan, brother of Paul who is No. 99 on the "MacMahon" (of Ulster) pedigree.  Donachan was the ancestor of 0'Leathlabhair; anglicized Lalor, Lawler, and Lawlor.  Donachan is a descendant of Colla da Chrioch.  See link  Lawlor (Lawler) of Monaghan.

Lynch. Lynchs are descended from Muredach Colla da Crioch. The Gaelic is O'Loingsigh (or Loingsy), which means mariner. Cairpri Daim Airgit, King of Airgialla (Kingdom of Oriel, died 513AD), had several sons; 1. Daimhin 2. Cormac 3. Nadsluagh 4. Fearach 5. Fiacha, 6. Longseach 7. Brian 8. Dobhron. I believe that our Lynch participant may be descended from the no. 6 son, Longseach. See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1892 (5th edition), Vol. I, pgs. 669 & 671.

MacCall. The MacCalls and MacColls are a sept of the MacDonalds.

MacDougall. The MacDougalls are descended from Carrell Colla Uais. They were descended from Dubhgall (a brother to Somerled), son of Giolla Brighid. Dubhgall's brother "Somerled" was lord of the Hebrides; and founder of the Kingdom of the Isles. Many of Somerled's descendants however... carry Norse, or Viking DNA. Our MacDougalls though, display a Celtic (Clan Colla) DNA signature. This may indicate that they're true descendants of a Celtic pedigree back to Colla Uais, where as either Somerled (or his descendants) do not carry the Colla bloodline. Many of the descendants of Colla Uais lived in Scotland. See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1892 (5th edition), Vol. I, pgs. 528, 539, & 669.

MacRory, Rogers. The MacRorys are descended from Carrell Colla Uais. They are descended from Rory (brother to Domhnall [son of Randal]. Rogers is an anglicised form of MacRory. See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1892 (5th edition), Vol. I, pgs 529, 536 & 669.

Maguire, McGuire. The Gaelic spelling Mag Uidhir was first mentioned in the Annals of Ulster in 956 A.D. The word Uidhir, meaning “pale coloured one”, is the possessive form of the proper name Odhar. This Mag-Uidhir ancestor (Odhar) is listed 11 generations below Cormac, a son of Cairpri Daim Airgit, a descendant of Muredach Colla da Crioch.  See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1892 (5th edition), Vol. I, pgs. 403, 509, 514, 565, 576-578, 670, and 817. Maguire Genealogy. The Maguires and the Origin of the McGuires.

The Maguires supplied Chiefs, Princes, and Kings to Fermanagh, from about 1264 A.D., when they supplanted the former Chieftains (O'Daimhin, or Devin), and continued in power till the reign of King James II., of England. Their stronghold, Maguire’s castle, is still in Enniskillen. The Maguire Clan ruled over county Fermanagh in Ireland for about 400 years (from about 1202 to 1607).  The Ó hEignigh and Maolruanaidh septs were noted as kings of Fermanagh until becoming tributary to the Maguires around 1202.  And the Maguire rulership came to an end for all practical purposes in 1607 during the time of The Flight of the Earls.  Cuchonnacht Maguire was instrumental in the organising the Flight of the Earls, acquiring the boat in France from which they sailed. Cuchonnacht had planned the mission for over a year, (see http://www.flightoftheearls.ie/maguire.htm).

Matthews. In Ulster and Co. Louth, the surname Matthews was used as an anglicized form of McMahon. See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1892 (5th edition), Vol. I, p. 550.

McAuley. McAuleys are descended from Muredach Colla da Crioch. MacLysaght says they are a branch of the Maguires. They lived in the baronry of Clanawley, southwest of Enniskillen. See Clan Awley.

McArdle. The McArdle's have since the earliest times, been closely associated with the ancient kingdom of Oriel. They were a branch of the McMahons through Nadsluagh, one of the most powerful and influential families in Ulster. The McArdle’s derive their suname through Ardghail Mac Mathghamhna Mór, the McMahon Chief from the year 1402 to 1406. They are descended from Muredach Colla da Crioch. See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1892 (5th edition), Vol. I, pgs. 669 & 816.

McDaniel. McDaniel can be a variant of McDonald, and through those origins would normally be descended from Carrell Colla Uais. The MacDomhnaill family native to Fermanagh though were descended from Clan Kelly, of Ulster. The MacDomhnaill surname was anglicized to MacDonnell, O’Donnell, MacDaniel, and Daniel. McDaniels of this line from "Clan Kelly" are descended from Muredach Colla da Crioch. See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1892 (5th edition), Vol. I, pgs. 536 & 672.

McDonald. The McDonalds are descended from Carrell Colla Uais. They were Lords of the Isles according to O'Hart. These McDonalds are to be distinguished from other McDonalds of Norse descent. See the Magenta subgroup in the Clan Donald DNA Project. Alastiar Og McDonald, Lord of the Isles was also known as Alastar MacColla. He and his sons were exiled from Scotland to Ireland after the Battle of Bannockburn with Robert the Bruce in 1095. For McDonald references, see O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1892 (5th edition), Vol. I, pgs. 527-528, 565, 669, and 821.  See also 43 Generations: Colla to McDonald.

McKenna. There appears to be multiple origins, or septs for the surname McKenna. The family in Irish was called MacIonaigh. They were Chiefs and Lords of Truagh, in County Monaghan. McKennas are descended from Muredach Colla da Crioch. See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1892 (5th edition), Vol. I, pgs. 543, 669 & 816. See McKenna Country.

McMahon. There are several unrelated septs; or origins for the surname McMahon. Our distinct McMahons are descended from Muredach Colla da Crioch, through Nadsluaigh, a son of Cairpri Daim Airgit (Argait), King of Airgialla. The MacMahons were Kings of Oriel for some 400 years, replacing the O'Carrolls in 1250. By 1300 the MacMahons gained control over much of the area of modern day County Monaghan. See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1892 (5th edition), Vol. I, pgs. 549-550, 669 & 671. See Clan McMahon of the Kingdom of Oriel. Some surname variations are: Mathews, McArdle (named after Ardle MacMahon), McPhillips (named after Phillip MacMahon) and Ennis and Connolly.  See also 49 Generations: Colla to McMahon.

McQuillan. The McQuillan name has multiple origins, or septs. The Gaelic spelling was MacUighilin i.e. son of little Hugh, and was also spelled sometimes MacUidhilin. The MacUidhilin, or MacQuillans, were one of the chief clans in Dalriada who held the territory of the Routes. The MacQuillans chief seat was at Dunluce. In O'Hart's 1876 "Irish Pedigrees", O'Hart says that the MacQuillans were powerful chiefs in Antrim, and were considered to have been descended from the Clan Colla with origins in Scotland. See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1876, p. 192; and 1892 (5th edition), Vol. I, p.821. See McQuillan Clan Association.

Peden, Paden. The Peden Y-DNA project has shown that there are multiple Scottish origins for Peden families. Peden is a patronymic name from the Gaelic "Paidin", the diminutive of Padruig (Patrick.) The Pedens with the 425 null result would have their origins in the western isles of Scotland and descend from Colla Uais. The Pedens are recognized as a sept of Clan MacDonald of the Isles and of Clan MacLean of Lochbuie.

Roberts. These Roberts are listed 15 generations below Colla Uais. See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1881, p. 301.

Roderick. These Rodericks are from Llantrisant, Glamorgan, in southern Wales. The earlier Welsh name was Rhydderch. According to O'Hart Vol. one, on page. 383 a Roderick is listed about 7 generations under Ruadhrach, which is a variant spelling of Rhydderch (the Welsh spelling). Note that Airmheadhach is the ancestor of "Clann Coleman, of Orgiall", and his brother is listed as Maolodhar Caoch (who is No. 92 on the Brody pedigree). On page 371, the same Maolodhar Caoch is again listed as the ancestor to Brody... and he's listed 6 generations below Fiacha Casan, the son of Colla da Chrioch. Therefore it stands to reason... that this particular Roderick line must be descended from Muredach Colla da Crioch. See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1892 (5th edition), Vol. I, pgs. 371 and 383.

Shannon. Shannons can have more than one origin. Some Shannon families descend from Clan MacDonald (Colla Uais). And also according to John O’Hart... there was a Shannon line descended from Firbis (son of Colcan) and ancestor to O'Connor of Orgiall, of Clan Colla. See O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, published in 1892 (3rd edition), Vol. I, pgs. 639-640. 

        John O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, Volume I and Volume II. For more info. see Descendants of the Three Collas.

Results

What defines Clan Colla DNA?

SNPs markers:
..... haplogroup R1b1a2a1a1b4 (or L21 positive) - further SNPs downstream of L21 are DF21+


STR markers:  
..... 425=0 (100%)

….. 505=9 (100%)
..... 511=9 (98% = 9, and 2%=10) 

GD ( Genetic Distance ) to the Clan Colla modal:
..... 11 or less (our members range from 1 to 11 on 67 markers)

Modal DNA for Clan Colla

A Clan Colla modal haplotype has been established at Ysearch called DURRQ. You can use the DURRQ id to search for individuals matching Clan Colla. The DURRQ modal represents the most common markers for the participants in this project, and others outside of this project who also have Colla surname, and a 425 null. The Clan Colla modal was calculated using the McGee Y-DNA Comparison Utility. To see the Clan Colla modal markers, please click here DURRQ.

Predominant markers


Clan Colla participants will have most of the marker values listed below depending upon what test marker level they have been tested at. The 425 null though seems to be the most defining element in our project; however not all 425 nulls will be related to the Clan Colla. There are some less common haplogroups that will display 425 nulls more frequently, but these groups are not related to Clan Colla because they are of a different haplogroup than ours.  More detail on these these predominant markers and their percentages can be found here: Colla verses Reference DNA and Source Data on Peter Biggins website.  The most prevalent markers (with percent distribution within the project) are found below.

100% - Marker 425: null value “0”
100% - Marker 505: value of 9
 99% - Marker 511: value of 9
 99% - Marker 385b: value of 15-17
 97% - Marker 534: value of 16-18
 95% - Marker 413a: value of 22
 90% - Marker 570: value of 18-21
 81% - Marker 449: value of 27-28
 74% - Marker 439: value of 13-15

Genetic Distance

The average genetic distance (GD) of the participants in the Clan Colla project is 6, with a range from 1 to 11 on 67 markers. The “Hybrid mutation model” was used in calculating the genetic distance using the McGee Y-DNA Comparison Utility. This mutation model is the same that FT-DNA uses to calculate GD. To see a table with the genetic distances between the surnames and the Clan Colla modal called DURRQ, see Colla Group Detail, Genetic Distance and Source Data on Peter Biggins website.

Interpreting Genetic Distance Within Surname Projects - 12 Markers
Interpreting Genetic Distance Within Surname Projects - 25 Markers
Interpreting Genetic Distance Within Surname Projects - 37 Markers
Interpreting Genetic Distance Within Surname Projects - 67 Markers


DEVELOPING SUMMARY RESULTS

Our original thoughts were that Cairpri Daim Airgit (King of Airgialla), or perhaps his son Nadsluaigh, or one of his descendants may have started the 425 null. The 425 null would have been passed down to all of the descendants. And that might explain why there are some McMahons, Carrolls, McGuires, and McKennas and others that share this null. We are seeing the 425 null being passed down through at least two of the Colla brothers, (Colla da Crioch and Colla Uais). But to date, we have not located a descendant of Colla Menn. But seeing the null in the other two Colla brothers... would indicate that a previous ancestor to the Collas must have carried the null, and that the null was passed down to their father.

This 425 null mutation likely occurred somewhere below the L21+ location in the Haplogroup family tree... and above the Three Collas. Some testers without the null may possibly be related at the L21+ haplogroup level, or just above the 425 null ancestor.  See Patrick McMahon's write-up on the L21 and Tribal Drift, the westward movement of bronze-age Celts through Europe).  The 425 null mutation could have originated as far back as Cairbre Lithfeachair (the grandfather to the Collas), but may have started even further back. From Cairbre Lithfeachair the null would have been passed down to Eochaid Dublein, and then on to his sons - The Three Collas.

In a parallel path from Cairbre Lithfeachair, the null would have been passed down through another son Fiacha Sraibhtine, then to Muiredach Tirech, then onto his great-grandson Eocaidh Muigh-medon, 124th King of Ireland. Eocaidh Muigh-medon was the father of Niall of Nine Hostages. It appears though that Naill and his descendants (per current DNA testers) did not receive the 425 null. Niall was born to Eocaidh’s second wife Carthann Cais Dubha (Cairenn Chasdub), daughter of Sachell Balb, king of the Saxons. And it may have been possible that Carthann was carrying someone else's child, rather than Eocaidh’s. But, through Eocaidh's first wife Mong-Fionn, (or Mongfind), daughter of Fidach, there was born to Eocaidh four earlier sons... Brian, Fiachra (or Fiachrae), Olioll, and Fergus.

We have found three surnames that are carrying the 425 null down through Fiachra, a half brother to Niall. But as earlier mentioned no nulls have been passed down to Niall's descendants thus far tested.  Here is John O'Hart's lineage for Fiachra. 

 1. Cairbre Lithfeachair (117th King of Ireland, and Grandfather to the Collas, through his son Eochaid Dublein) 
 2. Fiacha Sraibhtine third son, and 120th Monarch of Ireland; was slain by the Three Collas)
 3. Muiredach Tirech (fought and banished Colla Uais and his two brothers into Scotland)
 4. Eocaidh Muigh-medon

Through Eocaidh Muigh-medon's first wife Mong-Fionn, the following sons were born:

 1. Brian
 2. Fiachra (an elder half brother to Niall of Nine Hostages)
 3. Olioll
 4. Fergus
 
And by Eochaidh's second wife Carthann Cais Dubha (or Carinna), the daughter of a Celtic King in Britain... the following son was born.
 
 1. Niall Mor (Niall of Nine Hostages)

Additional detail of the gathered data and results can be found here... Summary of Study Results.

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